The Kaposi–Stemmer sign: an inability to pinch or pick up a fold of skin at the base of the second toe indicates lymphoedema.
Acute and chronic lipodermatosclerosis; the bright red skin (acute) could be mistaken for bacterial cellulitis but it is an inflammatory response to t...
Solid facial oedema.
Lymphoedema of the pendulous abdomen and mons pubis from obesity.
Classification pathway for primary lymphoedema. Text in red indicates the suggested genetic test for the subgroup. Please refer to Table for the def...
Atruncular lymphatic malformation without lymphoedema.
Benign lymphangiomatous papules (atypical vascular lesions) post radiotherapy.
Lymphangiosarcoma arising in primary lymphoedema.
(a) Normal lymphoscintigraphy. Images show patent lymph routes draining tracer from the feet to the ilio‐inguinal nodes. (Courtesy of Professor A. M....
The lymphatic vessel sits centre stage for immune cell trafficking within the skin. DC, dendritic cell. (From Mortimer et al. 2014 [ ].)
Oro‐facial granulomatosis exhibiting redness and indurated swelling of the right upper lip.
Carcinoma erysipeloides (carcinoma telangiectatica): the red vessels are dermal lymphatic vessels infiltrated with adenocarcinoma of the breast.
A patient with classic lipoedema. (a) Symmetrical fatty swelling of both lower limbs with sparing of the trunk. Increased adipose deposition of the up...
Truncular lymphatic malformation with blood‐filled cutaneous lymphangiectasia and lymphoedema.
Vulval lymphangiectasia showing acquired lymphangiomas (lymphangiectasias) following cervical cancer treatment. The lymphangiomas were mistaken for g...
Elephantiasis verrucosis nostras showing marked hyperkeratosis and papillomatosis.
Lymphoscintigraphs showing the uptake of technetium‐99 in the inguinal lymph nodes (ILNs) at 2 h after injection in the normal lymphatic system and in...
Lymphoedema associated with chronic venous disease.
Recurrent cellulitis in lymphoedema following breast cancer treatment. Note lymphangitis crossing the watershed to the contralateral lymph node territ...
Severe facial lymphoedema following treatment for carcinoma of the tongue.
Breast lymphoedema following cancer treatment. Note pitting from bra indentations in the skin of the right breast.
Yellow nail syndrome showing slow‐growing, overcurved, thickened nail plates and hand oedema.
Amniotic bands and lymphoedema.
The life cycle of filarial nematodes in the human and mosquito hosts. Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori have similar life cycles. ...
Acquired cutaneous lymphangiectasia leading to ulceration of the lower leg.
(a) Baseline magnetic resonance lymphangiography (MRL) images taken from a patient prior to contrast injection. His phenotype is of lymphoedema distic...
Causes of mixed lymphovenous disease and phlebolymphoedema.
Madelung disorder. (a) Benign symmetrical lipomatosis (also known as benign symmetrical lipomatosis of Launois–Bensaude, Madelung disease, multiple sy...
(a) Lymphoedema of the penis secondary to ano‐genital granulomatosis. There may be no sign of inflammation. (b) Genital lymphoedema secondary to hidra...
Massive localized lymphedema of the right thigh showing marked ‘cobblestone’ skin changes.
Lymphangioma circumscriptum showing fluid‐filled vesicles resembling frogspawn. At times the vesicles can contain blood, weep clear fluid (lymphorrhoe...
Kaposiform lymphangiomatosis showing a Kaposi sarcoma‐like rash with localized lymphoedema of the breast and chest wall associated with haemoptysis.
Lower limb lymphoedema due to podoconiosis. Note the presence of toe maceration and typical ‘mossy’ appearance of the foot. (Reproduced with permissi...
Macerated web‐space skin leads to bacterial entry points and fungal infection.
(a) Toe (or finger) bandaging with cotton crepe bandages. (b) Sub‐bandage wadding over a tubular cotton bandage. (c) Short‐stretch compression cotton ...