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Figure c02/f001
Figure 02.1
The skin and its appendages.
Figure c02/f005
Figure 02.5
Embryonic stages of hair follicle morphogenesis.
Figure c02/f009
Figure 02.9
Assembly of the epidermal cornified cell envelope. In response to increasing intracellular calcium, an internal scaffold of desmosomal proteins is mad...
Figure c02/f013
Figure 02.13
Anatomy and structure of the human nail.
Figure c02/f017
Figure 02.17
Dendritic appearance of epidermal Langerhans cells. Exposure to antigen provokes an increased movement of Langerhans cells as well as direct cell–cell...
Figure c02/f021
Figure 02.21
Part of a human skin mast cell showing characteristic granules, some with scroll‐like profiles (S). Arrows indicate perigranular membrane; L, lipid dr...
Figure c02/f025
Figure 02.25
Macromolecular composition of desmosomes linking adjacent keratinocytes. Cells are connected via transmembranous cadherin glycoproteins (desmogleins a...
Figure c02/f029
Figure 02.29
NaCl‐induced separation between the epidermis and dermis and antigen mapping within the cutaneous basement membrane. (a) The dermal–epidermal basement...
Figure c02/f033
Figure 02.33
Demonstration of periodicity in collagen fibres of 640 Å. (a) Collagen fibrils in the reticular dermis show a characteristic banding pattern after sta...
Figure c02/f037
Figure 02.37
Molecular composition, domain organization and functions of the α6β4 integrin, the main keratinocyte integrin in hemidesmosomes. This integrin is impo...
Figure c02/f041
Figure 02.41
Transmission electron microscopy of the dermal–epidermal junction revealing wheatsheaf‐shaped anchoring fibrils beneath the lamina densa. These fibril...
Figure c02/f045
Figure 02.45
Enzymatic hydroxylation of prolyl residues in the Y‐position of the repeating Gly‐X‐Y amino acid sequence to form hydroxyproline, an amino acid charac...
Figure c02/f049
Figure 02.49
Immunofluorescence staining of type I collagen (a,d) and the elastic fibre network (b,e) in the dermis of human skin visualized by confocal laser scan...
Figure c02/f053
Figure 02.53
Prototypic proteoglycan in which the central core (green) is hyaluronic and the link proteins are represented by S‐shapes, joining the protein side ch...
Figure c02/f057
Figure 02.57
Transmission electron microscopy of an activated dermal fibroblast (F) in a healing wound. Note the prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum in the cytop...
Figure c02/f061
Figure 02.61
High magnification view of Weibel–Palade bodies revealing tubular profiles in cross‐section. (Courtesy of Professor R. A. J. Eady, St John's Institut...
Figure c02/f065
Figure 02.65
Possible mechanisms for the proliferative potential of stem cells (SC) in the basal keratinocyte layer. In the symmetrical division model, two stem ce...
Figure c02/f002
Figure 02.2
Embryonic development of the skin depends on specific signalling molecules. Relative stimulation or inhibition by these signalling molecules also dete...
Figure c02/f006
Figure 02.6
Photomicrograph of a 1 μm‐thick plastic section of normal human skin. The tissue was fixed with half‐strength Karnovsky medium and embedded in Epon. T...
Figure c02/f010
Figure 02.10
Electron micrograph showing the location of epidermal lipids by ruthenium oxide staining. (a) Extrusion of lamellar body lipids or sheets can be seen ...
Figure c02/f014
Figure 02.14
Merkel cell in human epidermis. The dermis (d) with collagen fibres is seen in the lower part of the picture; b, basement membrane; de, desmosomes mak...
Figure c02/f018
Figure 02.18
When exposed to foreign antigen, the activity of resting Langerhans cells increases and the cells mature. Antigen is then processed and transported to...
Figure c02/f022
Figure 02.22
High‐magnification views of dermal mast cell granules. (a) Typical scroll‐like configuration of lamellae, some of which show a cross‐banding of regula...
Figure c02/f026
Figure 02.26
Macromolecular composition of an adherens junction in keratinocytes. There are two main components, nectin–afadin and the classic cadherin–catenin com...
Figure c02/f030
Figure 02.30
Transmission electron microscopy of the dermal–epidermal junction in human skin recognizing hemidesmosomes (HD), anchoring filaments (Afl) and anchori...
Figure c02/f034
Figure 02.34
Assembly of type IV and type VII collagen molecules into supramolecular structures. The red boxes represent intermolecular disulphide bonds.
Figure c02/f038
Figure 02.38
Model of nidogen, containing subdomains with predicted binding activities to type IV collagen, proteoglycans and laminin 1. EF and Ca refer to putativ...
Figure c02/f042
Figure 02.42
Transmission electron micrograph of a section of dermis from the human forearm showing bundles of collagen fibres, both in transverse and longitudinal...
Figure c02/f046
Figure 02.46
Formation of intermolecular cross‐links between individual collagen molecules. The cross‐linking is initiated by the conversion of lysine or a hydroxy...
Figure c02/f050
Figure 02.50
Transmission electron microscopy of an elastic fibre in the reticular dermis. The central electron‐pale core consists of elastin (E), while the electr...
Figure c02/f054
Figure 02.54
Glycosaminoglycan molecules that comprise the carbohydrate polymer side chains of proteoglycan molecules, including (a) heparin and heparan, (b) hyalu...
Figure c02/f058
Figure 02.58
Histology of microvessels in the reticular dermis. Arterioles (A) can be distinguished from venules (V) by the presence of elastic lamina, which stain...
Figure c02/f062
Figure 02.62
Histochemical detection of alkaline phosphatase activity indicating the presence of arterial microvessels in the superficial dermis. Original magnific...
Figure c02/f066
Figure 02.66
Structural and functional changes associated with skin ageing.
Figure c02/f003
Figure 02.3
Scanning electron micrograph of an 85–110‐day (estimated gestation age) human embryo. Single globular blebs project from the periderm cells. (Courtes...
Figure c02/f007
Figure 02.7
The process of epidermal differentiation is associated with the expression of different structures, macromolecules, transcription factors and other si...
Figure c02/f011
Figure 02.11
Structural organization of the keratin filament network within a keratinocyte. (Courtesy of Professor W. H. I. McLean, University of Dundee, UK.)
Figure c02/f015
Figure 02.15
As part of the innate immune defence system, antimicrobial peptides can stimulate G‐protein‐coupled receptors to induce cytokine and chemokine release...
Figure c02/f019
Figure 02.19
Langerhans cell (L) with its characteristically indented nucleus, situated between keratinocytes. The inset shows Langerhans cell granules with racque...
Figure c02/f023
Figure 02.23
(a) Activation of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) promotes the synthesis of eumelanin at the expense of phaeomelanin. Oxidation of tyrosine by tyro...
Figure c02/f027
Figure 02.27
Formation and structure of gap junctions in human skin. (a) In the Golgi network six connexin subunits assemble to form a connexon. The connexon is th...
Figure c02/f031
Figure 02.31
Gene/protein systems within the cutaneous basement membrane zone that can harbour mutations and result in blistering of the skin in different forms of...
Figure c02/f035
Figure 02.35
Different isoforms and domain organizations of laminin, each consisting of three distinct subunit polypeptides, α‐, β‐ and γ‐chains. The LE modules ar...
Figure c02/f039
Figure 02.39
Structure and domain organization of the major protein components at the cutaneous basement membrane zone, with their molecular weights and chromosoma...
Figure c02/f043
Figure 02.43
Type XVII collagen, a transmembrane protein in type 2 orientation. Note that the ectodomain traversing the lamina lucida contains 15 distinct triple h...
Figure c02/f047
Figure 02.47
Structural organization of various matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), divided into different subclasses. The signal, propeptide, active catalytic hinge...
Figure c02/f051
Figure 02.51
Assembly and cross‐linking of elastic fibres. Newly synthesized elastin precursor polypeptides, tropoelastins, with alternating hydrophobic and cross‐...
Figure c02/f055
Figure 02.55
Core protein aggrecan is joined by link proteins to hyluronate, with keratan sulphate (KS, blue) and chondroitin sulphate (CS, purple) side chains. aa...
Figure c02/f059
Figure 02.59
Transmission electron microscopy of a cross‐section through a small arteriole in the skin. Note the relatively smooth surface of the endothelial cell ...
Figure c02/f063
Figure 02.63
Epithelial stem cells are found within the interfollicular epidermis, the base of sebaceous glands and in the bulge area of hair follicles.
Figure c02/f004
Figure 02.4
Electron micrograph of the full‐thickness epidermis from the back of a 14‐week human fetus. The periderm cells are full of glycogen (g) and have micro...
Figure c02/f008
Figure 02.8
Electron micrograph showing details of the upper part of the epidermis including the stratum corneum (SC), stratum granulosum (SG) and most superficia...
Figure c02/f012
Figure 02.12
There are three components to the hair cycle: anagen (where new hair forms and grows), followed by catagen (regressing phase) and telogen (resting pha...
Figure c02/f016
Figure 02.16
The skin microbiome contains numerous bacteria that are variably present in different body regions. (Adapted from Chen and Tsao 2013 [ ].)
Figure c02/f020
Figure 02.20
Immune surveillance in normal skin is carried out by an array of skin‐based dendritic cells, macrophages and resident T cells. iNOS, inducible nitric ...
Figure c02/f024
Figure 02.24
Electron micrograph of desmosomes in the spinous layer. These intercellular junctions are closely associated with tonofilaments (tf), many of which, i...
Figure c02/f028
Figure 02.28
Structural composition of a tight junction in human skin. There are three transmembranous families of proteins, the junctional adhesion molecules (JAM...
Figure c02/f032
Figure 02.32
Immunofluorescence staining of the dermis and cutaneous basement membrane zone with an antibody for type IV collagen. Note positive staining at the de...
Figure c02/f036
Figure 02.36
(a) Laminin 332 expressed in the cutaneous basement membrane zone. (b) Immunogold electron microscopy using an antibody to the γ2 chain of laminin 332...
Figure c02/f040
Figure 02.40
Molecular interactions of the major components of the cutaneous basement membrane zone. The individual components are identified in the colour key and...
Figure c02/f044
Figure 02.44
Steps in the intracellular biosynthesis of triple helical type I procollagen, its secretion into the extracellular space, and assembly and cross‐linki...
Figure c02/f048
Figure 02.48
Main organization of various ADAMTS family metalloproteinases. The catalytic domain is shown in red, while other domains include the thrombospondin ty...
Figure c02/f052
Figure 02.52
Elastic fibres cross‐linked by desmosines (red). In the relaxed state, the fibres assume coiled‐coil conformations. When the fibres are stretched and ...
Figure c02/f056
Figure 02.56
Human versican gene: intron–exon organization (top) and deduced functional domains of the encoded protein. CRP, complement regulatory protein; EGF, ep...
Figure c02/f060
Figure 02.60
Transmission electron microscopy of a transverse section through a venule in the skin. The surface of the endothelial cells (E) in the lumen (L) is mo...
Figure c02/f064
Figure 02.64
Epidermal stem cell proliferation is regulated positively by β1 integrin and transforming growth factor α (TGF‐α) and negatively (–) by TGF‐β signalli...