Excitation of an atom with (a) spontaneous and (b) stimulated emission of radiation.
Absorption spectra of the principle tissue chromophores. Er:Glass, erbium:glass; Er:YAG, erbium:yttrium‐aluminium‐garnet; IPL, intense pulsed light; K...
Carbon dioxide laser treatment of vascular ectasia in port‐wine stain (a) before and (b) after treatment.
Improvement in plantar warts (a) before and (b) after four pulsed dye laser sessions.
Pseudofolliculitis barbae (a) before and (b) after a treatment with a normal mode alexandrite (755 nm) laser. Residual hair is sparse and fine and the...
Contouring of rhinophyma (a) before and (b) after treatment with a CO2 laser usually produces excellent cosmetic outcomes.
Diagram of a laser showing the external power source, the active medium within the optical cavity and a system of fully and partially reflective mirro...
Ulcerated haemangioma (a) before and (b) after two pulsed dye laser treatments.
Facial telangiectasia (a) before and (b) after pulsed dye laser treatment.
Professional tattoo (a) before and (b) after multiple Q‐switched alexandrite (532 and 1064 nm) laser treatments. Note the hypopigmentation following t...
Paradoxical hypertrichosis on the neck seen after long pulsed Nd:YAG laser treatment.
Tattoo granulomas (a) before and (b) after CO2 laser ablation; they usually respond well.
Simplified representation of the pulse types.
Flat and superficial port‐wine stain (a) before and (b) after four pulsed dye laser treatments (595 nm) showing an unusually good response.
Facial erythema (a) before and (b) after one treatment with a flashlamp, showing minimal patterning and a near disappearance.
Penile lentiginosis (a) before and (b) after Q‐switched alexandrite laser treatment.
Angiofibromas (a) before, (b) 6 months after and (c) 24 months after CO2 laser resurfacing, showing a gradual recurrence of lesions over time.
Fate of incident light on skin.
(a–c) Port‐wine stain intermittently treated with the pulsed dye laser over a period of 12 years showing a relative lack of response in the mid‐face p...
Angiokeratoma (a) before and (b) after pulsed dye laser treatment.
Naevus of Ota (a) before and (b) after seven treatments with a Q‐switched Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser, showing a reduction of abnormal pigment and minimal ...
Periorbital syringomas in a patient with skin phototype VI (a) before and (b) after 3 months of treatment with a CO2 laser.