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Figure c89/f001
Figure 89.1
Diagram of an anagen hair follicle.
Figure c89/f005
Figure 89.5
(a) Surface view of weathered cuticular scales in the distal portion of the hair shaft. (b) Surface view of undamaged cuticular scales in the proximal...
Figure c89/f009
Figure 89.9
The hair cycle. (From Olsen 1994. Reproduced with permission of McGraw‐Hill.)
Figure c89/f013
Figure 89.13
Trichoscopic images. (a) Yellow dots in alopecia areata. (b) Black dots and broken hairs in alopecia areata. (c) Variation in hair fibre diameter in f...
Figure c89/f017
Figure 89.17
Hamilton–Norwood scale for grading male pattern hair loss (From Norwood 1975 [ ]. Reproduced with permission of Wolters Kluwer Health.)
Figure c89/f021
Figure 89.21
 Acute telogen effluvium.
Figure c89/f025
Figure 89.25
 Idiopathic chronic telogen effluvium.
Figure c89/f029
Figure 89.29
An early anagen follicle in alopecia totalis, showing vacuolation in the hair matrix epithelium around the upper pole of the dermal papilla.
Figure c89/f033
Figure 89.33
Alopecia areata showing regrowth of hair at sites of intralesional corticosteroid injection (triamcinolone acetonide).
Figure c89/f037
Figure 89.37
Discoid lupus erythematosus. (a) Low‐power photomicrograph showing follicular plugging, superficial and deep perivascular and periappendageal lymphocy...
Figure c89/f041
Figure 89.41
Folliculitis decalvans showing active pustulation and scarring.
Figure c89/f045
Figure 89.45
Histology of trichotillomania showing fragmentation of the hair shaft.
Figure c89/f049
Figure 89.49
Triangular alopecia.
Figure c89/f052
Figure 89.53
Trichorrhexis invaginata in Netherton syndrome.
Figure c89/f057
Figure 89.57
Trichothiodystrophy showing alternating bright and dark zones under a polarizing microscope. (Courtesy of D. Van Neste, Brussels.)
Figure c89/f061
Figure 89.61
Plucked anagen hair in the loose anagen syndrome, showing a vestigial root sheath and a ruffled cuticle.
Figure c89/f065
Figure 89.65
Congenital hypertrichosis lanuginosa. (Courtesy of Dr Partridge, Leamington, UK.)
Figure c89/f069
Figure 89.69
Facial hirsutism: in this case it was not associated with any systemic disease or detectable biochemical endocrine abnormality.
Figure c89/f002
Figure 89.2
Grouping of hairs in follicular units on the human scalp. In some groups, multiple hairs emerge from a single follicular opening.
Figure c89/f006
Figure 89.6
Cross‐section through hair shaft showing cuticle layers (Cu) surrounding the central cortex (Co). Transmission electron micrograph, silver methenamine...
Figure c89/f010
Figure 89.10
Scalp hair follicle in the anagen II stage of development. The club hair from the previous cycle is still present within the follicle. (Courtesy of D...
Figure c89/f014
Figure 89.14
Biopsy – scarring alopecia protocol.
Figure c89/f018
Figure 89.18
Ludwig scale for grading female pattern hair loss. (From Ludwig 1977 [ ]. Reproduced with permission of John Wiley.)
Figure c89/f022
Figure 89.22
Diffuse alopecia in association with hypothyroidism.
Figure c89/f026
Figure 89.26
‘Porrigo decalvans’ (alopecia areata). Plate XL from Thomas Bateman's atlas Practical Synopsis of Cutaneous Diseases , 1819.
Figure c89/f030
Figure 89.30
Alopecia areata. (a) Patch of alopecia areata showing broken ‘exclamation mark hairs’ towards the margins. (b) Close‐up of exclamation mark hairs. (c)...
Figure c89/f034
Figure 89.34
Lichen planopilaris. (a) Low‐power photomicrograph showing follicular plugging and a periappendageal inflammatory infiltrate. (b) Base of the hair fol...
Figure c89/f038
Figure 89.38
Positive linear immunofluorescence to IgG: the lupus band test. (Courtesy of Dr G. Mason, Melbourne, Australia.)
Figure c89/f042
Figure 89.42
Tufted folliculitis.
Figure c89/f046
Figure 89.46
Trichotillomania showing a characteristic ‘tonsure’ pattern with the scalp margin hair spared.
Figure c89/f050
Figure 89.50
Monilethrix with swollen (node) and narrow (internode) fluctuations in the hair bore.
Figure c89/f054
Figure 89.54
Netherton syndrome. (a) An invaginate node showing partial twisting of the hair at the upper pole. (b) An invaginate node acting as a point of weaknes...
Figure c89/f058
Figure 89.58
Pili annulati. (a) Hair shaft by transmitted light showing an abnormal dark band (central part) caused by multiple cortical air spaces. This correspon...
Figure c89/f062
Figure 89.62
Focal loss of the cuticle in a weathered hair.
Figure c89/f066
Figure 89.66
Lumbosacral hypertrichosis (‘faun tail’), here associated with diastematomyelia.
Figure c89/f070
Figure 89.70
Human anagen follicle, showing pigment donation to the hair cortex. There is pigment incontinence in the dermal papilla. Masson–Fontana stain.
Figure c89/f003
Figure 89.3
Longitudinal section through the suprabulbar region of an anagen follicle showing the keratogenous region of the hair shaft (HS). The inner root sheat...
Figure c89/f007
Figure 89.7
Cross‐section of transformed cortical cells of human hair. The relatively translucent filaments, set in a more dense sulphur‐rich matrix, appear as co...
Figure c89/f011
Figure 89.11
Human hair follicle in mid‐catagen. There is a prominent glassy membrane surrounding the regressing epithelial column. The dermal papilla has rounded ...
Figure c89/f015
Figure 89.15
Biopsy – non‐scarring alopecia protocol.
Figure c89/f019
Figure 89.19
Pattern of frontal hair loss in women with androgenetic alopecia. Stage 1 is normal.
Figure c89/f023
Figure 89.23
Acquired zinc deficiency resulting from prolonged parenteral feeding and inadequate zinc supplementation.
Figure c89/f027
Figure 89.27
Lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate surrounding an anagen hair bulb in alopecia areata.
Figure c89/f031
Figure 89.31
(a) Sparing of white hairs in a patch of alopecia areata.(b) Regrowth of hypopigmented hair in alopecia areata.
Figure c89/f035
Figure 89.35
(a) Scarring alopecia caused by lichen planus showing active lesions.(b) More advanced lichen planus showing follicular plugs and scarring.
Figure c89/f039
Figure 89.39
Discoid lupus erythematosus showing scarring alopecia with scalp erythema and follicular plugging.
Figure c89/f043
Figure 89.43
Traction alopecia from braiding.
Figure c89/f047
Figure 89.47
Trichodysplasia spinulosa.
Figure c89/f051
Figure 89.51
Monilethrix on the nape of the neck showing follicular keratoses and short, broken hairs.
Figure c89/f055
Figure 89.55
Localized autosomal recessive hypotrichosis due to a dsg4 mutation.
Figure c89/f059
Figure 89.59
Woolly hair naevus.
Figure c89/f063
Figure 89.63
(a) Knotting of single and multiple hairs contributes to hair shaft trauma. (b) Braiding damages the hair shaft cuticle.
Figure c89/f067
Figure 89.67
Facial hypertrichosis in porphyria cutanea tarda.
Figure c89/f071
Figure 89.71
Rapid greying of the hair caused by alopecia areata. (a) A patient with slight greying of the hair, and (b) the same patient shown 1 week later. (Cou...
Figure c89/f004
Figure 89.4
Anagen hair bulb. Co, hair cortex; Cu, hair cuticle; DP, dermal papilla; DS, dermal sheath; He, Henle layer; HM, hair matrix; Hu, Huxley layer; IRSCu,...
Figure c89/f008
Figure 89.8
Exploded view of the major structural components comprising a human hair fibre. Pigment granules that are normally dispersed throughout the cortex are...
Figure c89/f012
Figure 89.12
Bactrian camel in a spring moult.
Figure c89/f016
Figure 89.16
(a, b) Orientation of the punch biopsy in the direction of hair growth.
Figure c89/f020
Figure 89.20
Histopathology of female pattern hair loss. (a) Increase in telogen forms – three of five follicles in a follicular unit are in telogen. (b) Follicula...
Figure c89/f024
Figure 89.24
Hair loss and photosensitivity caused by systemic lupus erythematosus.
Figure c89/f028
Figure 89.28
Proposed pathodynamic changes in alopecia areata. An inflammatory attack on anagen follicles precipitates follicles into telogen. Follicles re‐enter a...
Figure c89/f032
Figure 89.32
An organized pattern of pitting present on all fingernails 8 months prior to the onset of alopecia areata. The pits are highlighted with mascara.
Figure c89/f036
Figure 89.36
Frontal fibrosing alopecia showing scarring alopecia affecting the frontal hairline with follicular erythema and scale.
Figure c89/f040
Figure 89.40
Pseudopelade of Brocq.
Figure c89/f044
Figure 89.44
Traction alopecia in a Sikh boy.
Figure c89/f048
Figure 89.48
Trichodysplasia spinulosa histopathology. (a) Aberrant keratinization of the inner root sheath. (b) Positive immunohistochemical staining for polyomav...
Figure c89/f052
Figure 89.52
Pili torti. (a) Light micrograph showing 180° twists. (b) A 6‐month‐old boy with Menkes syndrome. (c) A 27‐year‐old woman with no personal or family h...
Figure c89/f056
Figure 89.56
Trichorrhexis nodosa. (a) Polarized light examination demonstrates the splayed cortical fibres radiating from the transverse fracture in a trichorrhex...
Figure c89/f060
Figure 89.60
Uncombable hair syndrome. (a) The triangular cross‐section of the hair contributes to its stiffness. (b) Light microscopy revealing grooving when usin...
Figure c89/f064
Figure 89.64
Appearance of normal scalp hair after exposure to a naked flame. Bubbles form within the cortex.
Figure c89/f068
Figure 89.68
Localized hypertrichosis at the site of underlying panniculitis.