Predominantly comedonal acne. (Courtesy of Dr S. Chow, KL Skin Centre, Malaysia.)
There is a correlation between acne scarring and duration of acne. Scarring is more likely to occur with delays in treatment. (Adapted from Layton et...
(a) Non‐classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia in a 16 year old with oligomenorrhoea pretreatment. (b) Post‐therapy with 2 mg oral prednisolone dail...
Monomorphic inflammatory papules and pustules associated with corticosteroid use. (Courtesy of Dr S. Chow, KL Skin Centre, Malaysia.)
Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor producing follicular acneform eruption on the face of a patient receiving treatment for colonic cancer.
Effects of P. acnes extracts on human sebocytes. CREBP, cAMP response element‐binding protein; hBD‐2, human β‐defensin 2; IL, interleukin; p38‐MAPK,...
Comedonal acne with mid‐facial distribution. This distribution is associated with poor prognosis.
Severe acne of the back with many inflammatory papules and pustules.
Atrophic scarring with associated inflammatory change. (Courtesy of J. Del Rosso Las Vegas Skin & Cancer Clinic, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.)
Multiple milia on the upper cheek. (Courtesy of Dr J. Del Rosso, Las Vegas Skin & Cancer Clinic, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.)
Sebaceous gland hyperplasia on the forehead. (From Zouboulis CC, Boschnakow A. Chronological ageing and photoageing of the human sebaceous gland. Clin...
Rosacea on the mid‐face with periorbital sparing.
Pityrosporum folliculitis in an immunocompromised male. (Courtesy of Dr S. Chow, KL Skin Centre, Malaysia.)
The Leeds photometric acne grading scale used to assess the face and trunk. (Reproduced from O'Brien et al . 1998 [ ] with permission from the Leeds...
Post‐inflammatory hyperpigmentation in Fitzpatrick type IV skin.
Treatment algorithm for severe acne. BPO, benzoyl peroxide.
Staphylococcus aureus colonizing discoid eczema induced by oral retinoids.
Erosive crusting lesions on the back of a young male with acne fulminans.
Neonatal cephalic pustulosis.
Infantile acne may involve cystic lesions and scarring. (Courtesy of Dr J. Ravenscroft, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, UK.)
Moderate to severe inflammatory acne including a mixture of non‐inflammatory and inflammatory lesions with seborrhoea.
The age distribution of acne is widening in both sexes.
Seborrhoea, acne, hirsutism and/or androgenic alopecia (SAHA) syndrome.
Severe acne vulgaris in a male body builder.
Moderate to severe inflammatory acne on the face.
Sandpaper comedones on the forehead.
Nodular acne of the right cheek with scars. (Courtesy of Dr S. Chow, KL Skin Centre, Malaysia.)
(a) Hypertrophic scarring of the shoulders in the context of moderate to severe acne. (b) Keloid scarring on the trunk associated with mild acne. (Co...
Fibrofolliculomas: Birt–Hogg–Dube syndrome. (Courtesy of Dr J. Del Rosso, Las Vegas Skin & Cancer Clinic, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.)
(a) Steatocystoma multiplex of the back. (b) Steatocystoma close‐up of the multiple cystic lesions. (Courtesy of Dr N. Veien, the Dermatology Clinic,...
Rosacea fulminans (synonymous with pyoderma faciale).
Folliculitis keloidalis affecting the nape of the neck and hairline resulting in cicatricial alopecia.
Sebutape analysis. Comparison of two Sebutapes demonstrating the difference between patients with and without acne. (a) Sebutape assessment of sebum. ...
Pyogenic granulomas in severe acne.
Potential mechanism of action(s) using antiandrogens in the management of acne. AR, androgen receptor; SHBG, sex hormone binding globulin.
Hyfrecation of macrocomedones.
Acne conglobata of the back with multiple inflammatory lesions, grouped comedones, cysts and scarring.
Mid‐facial comedones are associated with poor prognosis.
Post‐inflammatory macules and pigment changes interspersed with inflammatory acne. (Courtesy of Dr S. Chow, KL Skin Centre, Malaysia.)
(a) Acne in an adult female with polycystic ovary syndrome associated with hirsutism and seborrhoea. (b) Ultrasound scan showing cysts (+) on the ovar...
The unusual extent of acne in a patient with Apert syndrome.
Lithium‐induced acne. (Courtesy of Dr V. M. Yates, Royal Bolton Hospital, UK.)
Inflammatory cascades involved in acne pathogenesis. SREBP‐1, sterol response element‐binding protein 1. (Modified from Zouboulis et al. 2005 [ ].)
Acne on the back showing sparing of the central back.
Multiple macrocomedones interspersed with some inflammatory lesions on the cheeks of a female patient with acne. (Courtesy of Professor M. Jackson, U...
Nodular/conglobate acne with sinus tracts. (Courtesy of Dr C. L. Goh, National Skin Centre, Singapore.)
Acné excoriée on the forehead of a female. (Courtesy of Dr C. L. Goh, National Skin Centre, Singapore.)
A patient with comedo naevus (naevus comedonicus) predominantly consisting of blackheads on the lower abdomen.
Granulomatous rosacea synonymous with acne agminata seen on the cheek.
Perioral dermatitis demonstrating small papules on an erythematous base.
(a) Hidradenitis suppurativa of the groin showing inflammation, comedonal lesions and cribriform scarring. (b) Hidradenitis suppurativa of the right a...
Immune responses vary between scarring and non‐scarring acne patients.
Treatment algorithm for comedonal acne. BPO, benzoyl peroxide.
Retinoid dermatitis as a result of oral retinoids.
Patients with acne conglobata present with grouped comedones and deep‐seated inflammatory lesions.
Infantile acne on the cheek. (Courtesy of Dr J. Ravenscroft, Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK.)
Acne scarring. (a) Atrophic scarring on the cheeks. (Courtesy of Dr C. L. Goh, National Skin Centre, Singapore.) (b) Hypertrophic keloid scarring of ...
Schematic representation of the role of 21‐hydroxylase in the adrenal steroid genesis pathway. See text for abbreviations.
The typical appearance of the fingers of a patient with Apert syndrome.
Chloracne – multiple comedonal lesions on the face.
Neuropeptide–cytokine/chemokine signalling in human sebaceous glands and human sebocytes. Red: promoter of inflammation. Green: inhibition of inflamma...
Post‐inflammatory erythema and pigment changes on the forehead. (Courtesy of Dr J. Del Rosso, Las Vegas Skin & Cancer Clinic, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA....
Submarine comedones. This patient required stretching of the skin in order for them to be seen.
Inflammatory macules contribute to the erythema seen in acne.
Granulomatous acne of the face. (Courtesy of Dr C. L. Goh, National Skin Centre, Singapore.)
Favre–Racouchot syndrome (senile comedones). (Courtesy of Dr J. Del Rosso, Las Vegas Skin & Cancer Clinic, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.)
(a) Keratosis pilaris of the upper arms associated with some inflammation and excoriation. (b) A close‐up view of keratosis pilaris.
Gram‐negative folliculitis after long‐term antibiotic use showing multiple pustules. (Courtesy of Dr S. Chow, KL Skin Centre, Malaysia.)
Dental sinus confused with persistent facial acne nodule.
(a) Severe scarring of the arms and back showing soft distensible scars as a result of acne. (Courtesy of Dr S. Chow, KL Skin Centre, Malaysia.) (b) ...
Treatment algorithm for mild to moderate inflammatory acne. BPO, benzoyl peroxide.
Cheilitis and fissure of the lower lip induced by oral retinoids.
Acne fulminans in a young male.
Patient with acne conglobata present with abscesses and cysts, causing interconnecting sinus tracts.
Neonatal acne presenting in the first few weeks of life.