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Figure c90/f001
Figure 90.1
Predominantly comedonal acne. (Courtesy of Dr S. Chow, KL Skin Centre, Malaysia.)
Figure c90/f005
Figure 90.5
There is a correlation between acne scarring and duration of acne. Scarring is more likely to occur with delays in treatment. (Adapted from Layton et...
Figure c90/f009
Figure 90.9
(a) Non‐classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia in a 16 year old with oligomenorrhoea pretreatment. (b) Post‐therapy with 2 mg oral prednisolone dail...
Figure c90/f013
Figure 90.13
Monomorphic inflammatory papules and pustules associated with corticosteroid use. (Courtesy of Dr S. Chow, KL Skin Centre, Malaysia.)
Figure c90/f017
Figure 90.17
Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor producing follicular acneform eruption on the face of a patient receiving treatment for colonic cancer.
Figure c90/f021
Figure 90.21
Effects of P. acnes extracts on human sebocytes. CREBP, cAMP response element‐binding protein; hBD‐2, human β‐defensin 2; IL, interleukin; p38‐MAPK,...
Figure c90/f025
Figure 90.25
Comedonal acne with mid‐facial distribution. This distribution is associated with poor prognosis.
Figure c90/f029
Figure 90.29
Severe acne of the back with many inflammatory papules and pustules.
Figure c90/f033
Figure 90.33
Atrophic scarring with associated inflammatory change. (Courtesy of J. Del Rosso Las Vegas Skin & Cancer Clinic, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.)
Figure c90/f037
Figure 90.37
Multiple milia on the upper cheek. (Courtesy of Dr J. Del Rosso, Las Vegas Skin & Cancer Clinic, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.)
Figure c90/f041
Figure 90.41
Sebaceous gland hyperplasia on the forehead. (From Zouboulis CC, Boschnakow A. Chronological ageing and photoageing of the human sebaceous gland. Clin...
Figure c90/f045
Figure 90.45
Rosacea on the mid‐face with periorbital sparing.
Figure c90/f049
Figure 90.49
Pityrosporum folliculitis in an immunocompromised male. (Courtesy of Dr S. Chow, KL Skin Centre, Malaysia.)
Figure c90/f053
Figure 90.53
The Leeds photometric acne grading scale used to assess the face and trunk. (Reproduced from O'Brien et al . 1998 [ ] with permission from the Leeds...
Figure c90/f057
Figure 90.57
Post‐inflammatory hyperpigmentation in Fitzpatrick type IV skin.
Figure c90/f061
Figure 90.61
Treatment algorithm for severe acne. BPO, benzoyl peroxide.
Figure c90/f065
Figure 90.65
Staphylococcus aureus colonizing discoid eczema induced by oral retinoids.
Figure c90/f069
Figure 90.69
Erosive crusting lesions on the back of a young male with acne fulminans.
Figure c90/f073
Figure 90.73
Neonatal cephalic pustulosis.
Figure c90/f077
Figure 90.77
Infantile acne may involve cystic lesions and scarring. (Courtesy of Dr J. Ravenscroft, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, UK.)
Figure c90/f002
Figure 90.2
Moderate to severe inflammatory acne including a mixture of non‐inflammatory and inflammatory lesions with seborrhoea.
Figure c90/f006
Figure 90.6
The age distribution of acne is widening in both sexes.
Figure c90/f010
Figure 90.10
Seborrhoea, acne, hirsutism and/or androgenic alopecia (SAHA) syndrome.
Figure c90/f014
Figure 90.14
Severe acne vulgaris in a male body builder.
Figure c90/f018
Figure 90.18
Pomade acne.
Figure c90/f022
Figure 90.22
Moderate to severe inflammatory acne on the face.
Figure c90/f026
Figure 90.26
Sandpaper comedones on the forehead.
Figure c90/f030
Figure 90.30
Nodular acne of the right cheek with scars. (Courtesy of Dr S. Chow, KL Skin Centre, Malaysia.)
Figure c90/f034
Figure 90.34
(a) Hypertrophic scarring of the shoulders in the context of moderate to severe acne. (b) Keloid scarring on the trunk associated with mild acne. (Co...
Figure c90/f038
Figure 90.38
Fibrofolliculomas: Birt–Hogg–Dube syndrome. (Courtesy of Dr J. Del Rosso, Las Vegas Skin & Cancer Clinic, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.)
Figure c90/f042
Figure 90.42
(a) Steatocystoma multiplex of the back. (b) Steatocystoma close‐up of the multiple cystic lesions. (Courtesy of Dr N. Veien, the Dermatology Clinic,...
Figure c90/f046
Figure 90.46
Rosacea fulminans (synonymous with pyoderma faciale).
Figure c90/f050
Figure 90.50
Folliculitis keloidalis affecting the nape of the neck and hairline resulting in cicatricial alopecia.
Figure c90/f054
Figure 90.54
Sebutape analysis. Comparison of two Sebutapes demonstrating the difference between patients with and without acne. (a) Sebutape assessment of sebum. ...
Figure c90/f058
Figure 90.58
Pyogenic granulomas in severe acne.
Figure c90/f062
Figure 90.62
Potential mechanism of action(s) using antiandrogens in the management of acne. AR, androgen receptor; SHBG, sex hormone binding globulin.
Figure c90/f066
Figure 90.66
Hyfrecation of macrocomedones.
Figure c90/f070
Figure 90.70
Acne conglobata of the back with multiple inflammatory lesions, grouped comedones, cysts and scarring.
Figure c90/f074
Figure 90.74
Mid‐facial comedones are associated with poor prognosis.
Figure c90/f003
Figure 90.3
Post‐inflammatory macules and pigment changes interspersed with inflammatory acne. (Courtesy of Dr S. Chow, KL Skin Centre, Malaysia.)
Figure c90/f007
Figure 90.7
(a) Acne in an adult female with polycystic ovary syndrome associated with hirsutism and seborrhoea. (b) Ultrasound scan showing cysts (+) on the ovar...
Figure c90/f011
Figure 90.11
The unusual extent of acne in a patient with Apert syndrome.
Figure c90/f015
Figure 90.15
Lithium‐induced acne. (Courtesy of Dr V. M. Yates, Royal Bolton Hospital, UK.)
Figure c90/f019
Figure 90.19
Inflammatory cascades involved in acne pathogenesis. SREBP‐1, sterol response element‐binding protein 1. (Modified from Zouboulis et al. 2005 [ ].)
Figure c90/f023
Figure 90.23
Acne on the back showing sparing of the central back.
Figure c90/f027
Figure 90.27
Multiple macrocomedones interspersed with some inflammatory lesions on the cheeks of a female patient with acne. (Courtesy of Professor M. Jackson, U...
Figure c90/f031
Figure 90.31
Nodular/conglobate acne with sinus tracts. (Courtesy of Dr C. L. Goh, National Skin Centre, Singapore.)
Figure c90/f035
Figure 90.35
Acné excoriée on the forehead of a female. (Courtesy of Dr C. L. Goh, National Skin Centre, Singapore.)
Figure c90/f039
Figure 90.39
A patient with comedo naevus (naevus comedonicus) predominantly consisting of blackheads on the lower abdomen.
Figure c90/f043
Figure 90.43
Granulomatous rosacea synonymous with acne agminata seen on the cheek.
Figure c90/f047
Figure 90.47
Perioral dermatitis demonstrating small papules on an erythematous base.
Figure c90/f051
Figure 90.51
(a) Hidradenitis suppurativa of the groin showing inflammation, comedonal lesions and cribriform scarring. (b) Hidradenitis suppurativa of the right a...
Figure c90/f055
Figure 90.55
Immune responses vary between scarring and non‐scarring acne patients.
Figure c90/f059
Figure 90.59
Treatment algorithm for comedonal acne. BPO, benzoyl peroxide.
Figure c90/f063
Figure 90.63
Retinoid dermatitis as a result of oral retinoids.
Figure c90/f067
Figure 90.67
Comedo extractor.
Figure c90/f071
Figure 90.71
Patients with acne conglobata present with grouped comedones and deep‐seated inflammatory lesions.
Figure c90/f075
Figure 90.75
Infantile acne on the cheek. (Courtesy of Dr J. Ravenscroft, Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK.)
Figure c90/f004
Figure 90.4
Acne scarring. (a) Atrophic scarring on the cheeks. (Courtesy of Dr C. L. Goh, National Skin Centre, Singapore.) (b) Hypertrophic keloid scarring of ...
Figure c90/f008
Figure 90.8
Schematic representation of the role of 21‐hydroxylase in the adrenal steroid genesis pathway. See text for abbreviations.
Figure c90/f012
Figure 90.12
The typical appearance of the fingers of a patient with Apert syndrome.
Figure c90/f016
Figure 90.16
Chloracne – multiple comedonal lesions on the face.
Figure c90/f020
Figure 90.20
Neuropeptide–cytokine/chemokine signalling in human sebaceous glands and human sebocytes. Red: promoter of inflammation. Green: inhibition of inflamma...
Figure c90/f024
Figure 90.24
Post‐inflammatory erythema and pigment changes on the forehead. (Courtesy of Dr J. Del Rosso, Las Vegas Skin & Cancer Clinic, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA....
Figure c90/f028
Figure 90.28
Submarine comedones. This patient required stretching of the skin in order for them to be seen.
Figure c90/f032
Figure 90.32
Inflammatory macules contribute to the erythema seen in acne.
Figure c90/f036
Figure 90.36
Granulomatous acne of the face. (Courtesy of Dr C. L. Goh, National Skin Centre, Singapore.)
Figure c90/f040
Figure 90.40
Favre–Racouchot syndrome (senile comedones). (Courtesy of Dr J. Del Rosso, Las Vegas Skin & Cancer Clinic, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.)
Figure c90/f044
Figure 90.44
(a) Keratosis pilaris of the upper arms associated with some inflammation and excoriation. (b) A close‐up view of keratosis pilaris.
Figure c90/f048
Figure 90.48
Gram‐negative folliculitis after long‐term antibiotic use showing multiple pustules. (Courtesy of Dr S. Chow, KL Skin Centre, Malaysia.)
Figure c90/f052
Figure 90.52
Dental sinus confused with persistent facial acne nodule.
Figure c90/f056
Figure 90.56
(a) Severe scarring of the arms and back showing soft distensible scars as a result of acne. (Courtesy of Dr S. Chow, KL Skin Centre, Malaysia.) (b) ...
Figure c90/f060
Figure 90.60
Treatment algorithm for mild to moderate inflammatory acne. BPO, benzoyl peroxide.
Figure c90/f064
Figure 90.64
Cheilitis and fissure of the lower lip induced by oral retinoids.
Figure c90/f068
Figure 90.68
Acne fulminans in a young male.
Figure c90/f072
Figure 90.72
Patient with acne conglobata present with abscesses and cysts, causing interconnecting sinus tracts.
Figure c90/f076
Figure 90.76
Neonatal acne presenting in the first few weeks of life.