Basal Cell Carcinoma

Vishal Madan, John T. Lear


Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are the commonest of the non‐melanoma skin cancers and are the most common human cancers. Their rising incidence and associated morbidity has generated phenomenal interest in unravelling their pathogenesis, which has also led to a keen interest in the search for newer potential non‐invasive treatments. Unlike other non‐melanoma skin cancers, the relationship between sun‐exposure patterns and pathogenesis of the various subtypes of BCC still remains undetermined. Besides, several complex genotypic, phenotypic and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis of BCCs, which are mainly diagnosed clinically. Histology helps in the clinical confirmation of diagnosis and to subtype the BCC. The dermatologist now has several treatment options for BCCs. These range from non‐invasive, topical and photodynamic therapies for superficial BCCs to Mohs micrographic surgery for more complex lesions. The search for other more effective and tissue salvaging therapies continues.
Keywords basal cell carcinoma, BCC, non‐melanoma skin cancer, imiquimod, photodynamic therapy, curettage, cryotherapy, radiotherapy, Mohs surgery, excision, rodent ulcer


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