Calcification of the Skin and Subcutaneous Tissues
Calcification occurs in the skin and subcutaneous tissues either as a consequence of the alteration of systemic calcium homeostasis or as a local side effect of inflammation, infection, trauma or neoplastic disease. In its most benign form, calcification is noticed as an incidental finding on histopathlogical analysis. The more severe forms, seen in scleroderma, dermatomyositis and calciphylaxis, lead to significant morbidity and mortality. The different forms of calcification are usually recognizable on clinical assessment. Further investigation, where clinically indicated, include biopsy, biochemistry and autoimmune serology. Excision is the most effective treatment for localized disease. Many different modalities are proposed for extensive disease and are often disappointing.
Keywords calcinosis, calciphylaxis, calcification, scleroderma, dermatomyositis, lupus