Introduction

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Poxvirus infections

    Smallpox (variola)

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    Vaccinia

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    • 9  Abrahão JS, Silva‐Fernandes AT, Lima LS, et al. Vaccinia virus infection in monkeys, Brazilian Amazon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:9769.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 10  Silva‐Fernandes AT, Travassos CE, Ferreira JM, et al. Natural human infections with Vaccinia virus during bovine vaccinia outbreaks. J Clin Virol 2009;44:30813.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 11  Gubser C, Hue S, Kellam P, et al. Poxvirus genomes: a phylogenetic analysis. J Gen Virol 2004;85:10517.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 12  Young GE, Hidalgo CM, Sullivan‐Frohm A, et al. Secondary and tertiary transmission of vaccinia virus from US military service member. Emerg Infect Dis 2011;17:71821.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 13  Hughes CM, Blythe D, Li Y, et al. Vaccinia virus infections in martial arts gym, Maryland, USA, 2008. Emerg Infect Dis 2011;17:7303.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 14  Muzny CA, King H, Byers P, et al. Vulvar vaccinia infection after sexual contact with a smallpox vaccinee. Am J Med Sci 2009;337:28991.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 15  Lederman ER, Davidson W, Groff HL, et al. Progressive vaccinia: Case description and laboratory‐guided therapy with vaccinia immune globulin, ST‐246, and CMX001. J Infect Dis 2012;206:137285.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 16  Beachkofsky TM, Carrizales SC, Bidinger JJ, et al. Adverse events following smallpox vaccination with ACAM2000 in a military population. Arch Dermatol 2010;146:65661.Pubmed link
    • 17  Schwartz B, Lebwohl M. Complications of the smallpox vaccine. Int J Dermatol 2005;44:28992.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 18  Waibel KH, Walsh DS. Smallpox vaccination site complications. Int J Dermatol 2006;45:6848.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

    Monkeypox

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    • 20  Formenty P, Muntasir MO, Damon I, et al. Human monkeypox outbreak caused by novel virus belonging to Congo Basin clade, Sudan, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis 2010;16:153945.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 21  Sale TA, Melski JW, Stratman EJ. Monkeypox: an epidemiologic and clinical comparison of African and US disease. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006;55:47881.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 22  Rimoin AW, Mulembakani PM, Johnston SC, et al. Major increase in human monkeypox incidence 30 years after smallpox vaccination campaigns cease in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010;107:162627.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 23  Bayer‐Garner IB. Monkeypox virus: histologic, immunohistochemical and electron‐microscopic findings. J Cutan Pathol 2005;32:2834.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 24  Rimoin AW, Kisalu N, Kebela‐Ilunga B, et al. Endemic human monkeypox, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2001–2004. Emerg Infect Dis 2007 Jun;13:9347.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 25  Di Giulio DB, Eckburg PB. Human monkeypox: an emerging zoonosis. Lancet Infect Dis 2004;4:1525.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 26  Jezek Z, Szczeniowski M, Paluku KM, et al. Human monkeypox: clinical features of 282 patients. J Infect Dis 1987;156:2938Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 27  McCollum AM, Damon IK. Human monkeypox. Clin Infect Dis 2014;58:2607Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 28  Shchelkunov SN, Shcherbakov DN, Maksyutov RA, et al. Species‐specific identification of variola, monkeypox, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses by multiplex real‐time PCR assay. J Virol Methods 2011;175:1639.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 29  Dubois ME, Hammarlund E, Slifka MK. Optimization of peptide‐based ELISA for serological diagnostics: a retrospective study of human monkeypox infection. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2012 May;12:4009.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

    Cowpox

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    • 31  Vogel S, Sárdy M, Glos K, et al. The Munich outbreak of cutaneous cowpox infection: transmission by infected pet rats. Acta Derm Venereol 2012;92:12631.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 32  McCollum AM, Austin C, Nawrocki J, et al. Investigation of the first laboratory‐acquired human cowpox virus infection in the United States. J Infect Dis 2012;206:638.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 33  Motley RJ, Holt PJ. Cowpox presenting with sporotrichoid spread: a case report. Br J Dermatol 1990;122:7058.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 34  Dina J, Lefeuvre PF, Bellot A, et al. Genital ulcerations due to a cowpox virus: a misleading diagnosis of herpes. J Clin Virol 2011;50:3457.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 35  Blackford S, Roberts DL, Thomas PD. Cowpox infection causing a generalized eruption in a patient with atopic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 1993;129:6289.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 36  Claudy AL, Gaudin OG, Granouillet R. Pox virus infection in Darier's disease. Clin Exp Dermatol 1982;7:2615.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 37  Eis‐Hubinger AM, Gerritzen A, Schneweis KE, et al. Fatal cowpox‐like virus infection transmitted by cat. Lancet 1990;336:880.
    • 38  Gavrilova EV, Shcherbakov DN, Maksyutov RA, et al. Development of real‐time PCR assay for specific detection of cowpox virus. J Clin Virol 2010;49:3740.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 39  Shchelkunov SN, Shcherbakov DN, Maksyutov RA, et al. Species‐specific identification of variola, monkeypox, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses by multiplex real‐time PCR assay. J Virol Methods 2011;175:1639.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 40  Geerinck K, Lukito G, Snoeck R, et al. A case of human orf in an immunocompromised patient treated successfully with cidofovir cream. J Med Virol 2001;64:5439.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

    Buffalopox

    • 41  Singh RK, Hosamani M, Balamurugan V, et al. Buffalopox: an emerging and re‐emerging zoonosis. Anim Health Res Rev 2007;8:10514.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 42  Goyal T, Varshney A, Bakshi SK, et al. Buffalo pox outbreak with atypical features: a word of caution and need for early intervention! Int J Dermatol 2013;52:122430.Pubmed link
    • 43  Venkatesan G, Balamurugan V, Prabhu M, et al. Emerging and re‐emerging zoonotic buffalopox infection: a severe outbreak in Kolhapur (Maharashtra), India. Vet Ital 2010;46:43948.Pubmed link

    Orf

    • 44  Frandsen J, Enslow M, Bowen AR. Orf parapoxvirus infection from a cat scratch. Dermatol Online J 2011;17:9.Pubmed link
    • 45  Kitchen M, Müller H, Zobl A, et al. Orf virus infection in a hunter in Western Austria, presumably transmitted by game. Acta Derm Venereol 2013;94:21214.Cross Ref link
    • 46  Malik M, Bharier M, Tahan S, et al. Orf acquired during religious observance. Arch Dermatol 2009;145:6068.Pubmed link
    • 47  Leavell UW Jr, McNamara MJ, Muelling R, et al. Orf. Report of 19 human cases with clinical and pathological observations. JAMA 1968;204:65764.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 48  Groves RW, Wilson‐Jones E, MacDonald DM. Human orf and milkers' nodules: a clinicopathological study. J Am Acad Dermatol 1991;25:70611.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 49  Midilli K, Erkiliç A, Kuşkucu M, et al. Nosocomial outbreak of disseminated orf infection in a burn unit, Gaziantep, Turkey, October to December 2012. Euro Surv. 2013;18:20425.
    • 50  Weide B, Metzler G, Eigentler TK, et al. Inflammatory nodules around the axilla: an uncommon localization of orf virus infection. Clin Exp Dermatol 2009;34:2402.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 51  Kandemir H, Ciftcioglu MA, Yilmaz E. Genital orf. Eur J Dermatol 2008;18:4601.Pubmed link
    • 52  Ballanger F, Barbarot S, Mollat C, et al. Two giant orf lesions in a heart/lung transplant patient. Eur J Dermatol 2006;16:2846.Pubmed link
    • 53  Rørdam OM, Grimstad Ø, Spigset O, et al. Giant orf with prolonged recovery in a patient with psoriatic arthritis treated with etanercept. Acta Derm Venereol 2013;93:4878.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 54  Sasmaz S, Uzel M, Sener S, Ucmak H. Rare presentation of human orf as multiple lesions. J Dermatol 2011;38:8256.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 55  Higgins E, Bennett M, Murphy A, et al. Disseminated parapox (orf) in a 13‐year‐old boy with atopic dermatitis following acupuncture. Clin Exp Dermatol 2011;36:80911.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 56  Coskun O, Gul CH, Bilgeturk A, et al. Human orf complicated with erythema multiforme. Int J Dermatol 2008;47:13334.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 57  White KP, Zedek DC, White WL, et al. Orf‐induced immunobullous disease: A distinct autoimmune blistering disorder. J Am Acad Dermatol 2008;58:4955.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 58  van den Bos RR, Middelburg T, van Biezen P, et al. Orf‐induced pemphigoid with antilaminin‐332 antibodies. Br J Dermatol 2012;167:9568.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 59  Chan KW, Hsu WL, Wang CY, et al. Differential diagnosis of orf viruses by a single step PCR. J Virol Methods 2009;160:859.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 60  Du H, Li W, Hao W, et al. Taqman real‐time PCR assay based on ORFV024 gene for rapid detection of orf infection. Toxicol Mech Methods 2013;23:30814.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 61  Degraeve C, De Coninck A, Senneseael J, et al. Recurrent contagious ecthyma (Orf) in an immunocompromised host successfully treated with cryotherapy. Dermatology 1999;198:1623.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 62  Hunskaar S. A case of ecthyma contagiosum (human orf) treated with idoxuridine. Dermatologica 1984;168:207.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 63  Zaharia D, Kanitakis J, Pouteil‐Noble C, et al. Rapidly growing orf in a renal transplant recipient: favourable outcome with reduction of immunosuppression and imiquimod. Transpl Int 2010;23:e624.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 64  McCabe D, Weston B, Storch G. Treatment of orf poxvirus lesion with cidofovir cream. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2003;22:10278.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

    Milker's nodule

    • 65  Lederman ER, Tao M, Reynolds MG, et al. An investigation of a cluster of parapoxvirus cases in Missouri, Feb–May 2006: Epidemiologic, clinical and molecular aspects. Animals 2013;3:14257.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 66  Abrahão JS, Silva‐Fernandes AT, Assis FL, et al. Human Vaccinia virus and Pseudocowpox virus co‐infection: clinical description and phylogenetic characterization. J Clin Virol 2010;48:6972.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 67  Wallace HJ. A note on milker's nodes. Br J Dermatol 1947;59:37983.Cross Ref link
    • 68  Kuokkanen K, Launis J, Mörttinen A. Erythema nodosum and erythema multiforme associated with milker's nodules. Acta Derm Venereol 1976;56:6972.Pubmed link
    • 69  Inoshima Y, Morooka A, Sentsui H. Detection and diagnosis of parapoxvirus by the polymerase chain reaction. J Virol Methods 2000;84:2018.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 70  Zhao H, Wilkins K, Damon IK, et al. Specific qPCR assays for the detection of orf virus, pseudocowpox virus and bovine papular stomatitis virus. J Virol Methods 2013;194:22934.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

    Molluscum contagiosum

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    • 72  Scholz J, Rosen‐Wolff A, Bugert J, et al. Epidemiology of molluscum contagiosum using genetic analysis of the viral DNA. J Med Virol 1989;27:8790.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 73  Thompson CH, De Zwart‐Steffe RT, Biggs IM. Molecular epidemiology of Australian isolates of molluscum contagiosum. J Med Virol 1990;32:19.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 74  Olsen JR, Gallacher J, Piguet V, Francis NA. Epidemiology of molluscum contagiosum in children: a systematic review. Fam Pract 2014;31:1306.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 75  Dohil MA, Lin P, Lee J, et al. The epidemiology of molluscum contagiosum in children. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006;54:4754.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 76  Kawahara A, Yoshida M. Detection of viral DNA in nonlesional skin of patients with molluscum contagiosum and on environmental fomites. Br J Dermatol 2009;160:13579.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 77  O'Connell C, Oranje A, Van Gysel D, Silverberg NB. Congenital molluscum contagiosum: report of four cases and review of the literature. Pediatr Dermatol 2008;25:5536.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 78  Postlethwaite R, Watt JA, Hawley TG, et al. Features of molluscum contagiosum in the north‐east of Scotland and in Fijian village settlements. J Hyg (Lond) 1967;65:28191.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 79  Kyriakis KP, Palamaras I, Terzoudi S, et al. Case detection rates of molluscum contagiosum in childhood. Pediatr Dermatol 2007;24:1989.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 80  Niizeki K, Kano O, Kondo Y. An epidemic study of molluscum contagiosum. Relationship to swimming. Dermatologica 1984;169:1978.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 81  Choong KY, Roberts LJ. Molluscum contagiosum, swimming and bathing: a clinical analysis. Australas J Dermatol 1999;40:8992.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 82  Leslie KS, Dootson G, Sterling JC. Topical salicylic acid gel as a treatment for molluscum contagiosum in children. J Dermatol Treat 2005;16:33640.Cross Ref link
    • 83  Hayashida S, Furusho N, Uchi H, et al. Are lifetime prevalence of impetigo, molluscum and herpes infection really increased in children having atopic dermatitis? J Dermatol Sci 2010;60:1738.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 84  Hellier FF. Profuse mollusca contagiosa of the face induced by corticosteroids. Br J Dermatol 1971;85:398.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 85  Goksugur N, Ozbostanci B, Goksugur SB. Molluscum contagiosum infection associated with pimecrolimus use in pityriasis alba. Pediatr Dermatol 2007;24:E635.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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    • 87  Chen KW, Yang CF, Huang CT, et al. Molluscum contagiosum in a patient with adult T‐cell leukaemia/lymphoma. Br J Haematol 2011;155:286.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 88  Ganpule M, Garretts M. Molluscum contagiosum and sarcoidosis: report of a case. Br J Dermatol 1971;85:5879.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 89  Böhm M, Luger TA, Bonsmann G. Disseminated giant molluscum contagiosum in a patient with idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia. Successful eradication with systemic interferon. Dermatology 2008;217:1968.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 90  Kharkar V, Kardekar S, Gutte R, et al. Disseminated molluscum contagiosum infection in a hyper IgE syndrome. Ind J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2012;78:3714.Cross Ref link
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    • 94  Antoniou C, Kosmadaki MG, Stratigos AJ, et al. Genital HPV lesions and molluscum contagiosum occurring in patients receiving anti‐TNF‐alpha therapy. Dermatology 2008;216:3645.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 95  Madan V, August PJ. Facial molluscum contagiosum in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis taking methotrexate. Clin Exp Dermatol 2008;33:347.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 96  Euvrard S, Kanitakis J, Cochat P, et al. Skin diseases in children with organ transplants. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001;44:9329.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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    • 98  Henao M, Freeman RG. Inflammatory molluscum contagiosum. Clinicopathological study of seven cases. Arch Dermatol 1964;90:47982.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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    • 143  Enns LL, Evans MS. Intralesional immunotherapy with Candida antigen for the treatment of molluscum contagiosum in children. Pediatr Dermatol 2011;28:2548.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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    • 145  Papadopoulos EJ. Clinical executive summary {[miquimod] Available at: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/DevelopmentResources/UCM162961.pdf (last accessed March 2015).
    • 146  Friedman M, Gal D. Keloid scars as a result of CO2 laser for molluscum contagiosum. Obstet Gynecol 1987;70:3946.Pubmed link
    • 147  Binder B, Weger W, Komericki P, et al. Treatment of molluscum contagiosum with a pulsed dye laser: Pilot study with 19 children. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2008;6:1215.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 148  Gold MH, Moiin A. Treatment of verrucae vulgaris and molluscum contagiosum with photodynamic therapy. Dermatol Clin 2007;25:7580.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 149  Simonart T, De Maertelaer V. Curettage treatment for molluscum contagiosum: a follow‐up survey study. Br J Dermatol 2008;159:11447.Pubmed link
    • 150  Rönnerfält L, Fransson J, Wahlgren CF. EMLA cream provides rapid pain relief for the curettage of molluscum contagiosum in children with atopic dermatitis without causing serious application‐site reactions. Pediatr Dermatol 1998;15:30912.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 151  Erickson C, Driscoll M, Gaspari A. Efficacy of intravenous cidofovir in the treatment of giant molluscum contagiosum in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus. Arch Dermatol 2011;147:6524.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 152  Toro JR, Wood LV, Patel NK, et al. Topical cidofovir: a novel treatment for recalcitrant molluscum contagiosum in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1. Arch Dermatol 2000;136:9835.Pubmed link
    • 153  Sisneros SC. Recalcitrant giant molluscum contagiosum in a patient with advanced HIV disease – eradication of disease with paclitaxel. Top HIV Med 2010;18:16972.Pubmed link

    Tanapox

    • 154  Jezek Z, Arita I, Szczeniowski M, et al. Human tanapox in Zaire: clinical and epidemiological observations on cases confirmed by laboratory studies. Bull WHO 1985;63:102735.Pubmed link
    • 155  Dhar AD, Werchniak AE, Li Y, et al. Tanapox infection in a college student. N Engl J Med 2004;350:3616.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
    • 156  Zimmermann P, Thordsen I, Frangoulidis D, et al. Real‐time PCR assay for the detection of tanapox virus and yaba‐like disease virus. J Virol Methods 2005;130:14953.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

    Herpesvirus infections

      Herpes simplex

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      • 158  Lafferty WE, Coombs RW, Benedetti J, et al. Recurrences after oral and genital herpes simplex virus infection. Influence of site of infection and viral type. N Engl J Med 1987;316:14449.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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      • 160  Burdick KH, Haserick JR, Gardner WJ. Herpes simplex following decompression operations for trigeminal neuralgia. Attempts to modify by local use of hydrocortisone preparations. Arch Dermatol 1960;81:91921.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 161  Haverkos HW, Pazin GJ, Ho M, et al. Reactivation of type 2 herpes simplex virus by thoracolumbar neurosurgery. Ann Intern Med 1984;101:5034.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 162  Openshaw H, Bennett HE. Recurrence of herpes simplex virus after dental extraction. J Infect Dis 1982;146:707.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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      • 164  Johnson PJ, Hollins RR. Delayed reactivation of herpes simplex virus infection after facial laser resurfacing. Plast Reconstr Surg 2000;106:7434.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 165  Schmidt DD, Schmidt PM, Crabtree BF, et al. The temporal relationship of psychosocial stress to cellular immunity and herpes labialis recurrences. Fam Med 1991;23:5949.Pubmed link
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      • 167  Tronstein E, Johnston C, Huang M‐L, et al. Genital shedding of herpes simplex virus among symptomatic and asymptomatic persons with HSV‐2 Infection. JAMA 2011;305:14419.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 168  Fatahzadeh M, Schwartz RA. Human herpes simplex virus infections: epidemiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis, and management. J Am Acad Dermatol 2007;57:73763;quiz 64–6.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 169  Corey L, Spear PG. Infections with herpes simplex viruses (1). N Engl J Med 1986;314:68691.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 170  Corey L, Spear PG. Infections with herpes simplex viruses (2). N Engl J Med 1986;314:74957.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 171  Corey L. First‐episode, recurrent, and asymptomatic herpes simplex infections. J Am Acad Dermatol 1988;18:16972.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 172  Kinchington PR, St Leger AJ, Guedon J‐MG, Hendricks RL. Herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus, the house guests who never leave. Herpesviridae 2012;3:5.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 173  Gill MJ, Arlette J, Buchan K. Herpes simplex virus infection of the hand. A profile of 79 cases. Am J Med 1988;84:8993.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 174  Dekio S, Kawasaki Y, Jidoi J. Herpes simplex on nipples inoculated from herpetic gingivostomatitis of a baby. Clin Exp Dermatol 1986;11:6646.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 175  Vestey JP, Howie SE, Norval M, et al. Immune responses to herpes simplex virus in patients with facial herpes simplex and those with eczema herpeticum. Br J Dermatol 1988;118:77582.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 176  Greenberg MS, Friedman H, Cohen SG, et al. A comparative study of herpes simplex infections in renal transplant and leukemic patients. J Infect Dis 1987;156:2807.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 177  Vonderheid EC, Milstein HJ, Thompson KD, et al. Chronic herpes simplex infection in cutaneous T‐cell lymphomas. Arch Dermatol 1980;116:101822.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 178  Ambo M. Relapsing Kaposi's varicelliform eruption and herpes simplex following facial tacrolimus treatment for atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol 2002;82:2245.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 179  Lonsdale‐Eccles AA, Velangi S. Herpes simplex of the vulva evoked by topical tacrolimus treatment. Clin Exp Dermatol 2005;30:956.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 180  Hashizume H, Yagi H, Ohshima A, et al. Comparable risk of herpes simplex virus infection between topical treatments with tacrolimus and corticosteroids in adults with atopic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 2006;154:12046.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 181  Rystedt I, Strannegard IL, Strannegard O. Recurrent viral infections in patients with past or present atopic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 1986;114:57582.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 182  Leyden JJ, Baker DA. Localized herpes simplex infections in atopic dermatitis. Arch Dermatol 1979;115:31112.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 183  David TJ, Longson M. Herpes simplex infections in atopic eczema. Arch Dis Child 1985;60:33843.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 184  Kolokotronis A, Doumas S. Herpes simplex virus infection, with particular reference to the progression and complications of primary herpetic gingivostomatitis. Clin Microbiol Infect 2006;12:20211.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 185  Smith JS, Robinson NJ. Age‐specific prevalence of infection with herpes simplex virus types 2 and 1: a global review. J Infect Dis 2002;186 (Suppl. 1):S328.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 186  Vyse AJ, Gay NJ, Slomka MJ, et al. The burden of infection with HSV‐1 and HSV‐2 in England and Wales: implications for the changing epidemiology of genital herpes. Sex Transm Infect 2000;76:1837.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 187  Wutzler P, Doerr HW, Farber I, et al. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in selected German populations – relevance for the incidence of genital herpes. J Med Virol 2000;61:2017.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 188  Xu F, Schillinger JA, Sternberg MR, et al. Seroprevalence and coinfection with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in the United States, 1988–1994. J Infect Dis 2002;185:101924.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 189  Boddingius J, Dijkman H, van der Meijden W, et al. Replication characteristics and core size of intranuclear herpes simplex virus (HSV‐1) in genital skin lesions: electronmicroscopy studies of a biopsy from a female patient. J Med Microbiol 1987;24:93103.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 190  Levitz RE. Herpes simplex encephalitis: a review. Heart Lung 1998;27:20912.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 191  Corey L, Whitley RJ, Stone EF, et al. Difference between herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 neonatal encephalitis in neurological outcome. Lancet 1988;1:14.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 192  Norvell JP, Blei AT, Jovanovic BD, et al. Herpes simplex virus hepatitis: an analysis of the published literature and institutional cases. Liver Transpl 2007;13:142834.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 193  Sharma S, Mosunjac M. Herpes simplex hepatitis in adults: a search for muco‐cutaneous clues. J Clin Gastroenterol 2004;38:697704.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 194  Graham BS, Snell JD Jr. Herpes simplex virus infection of the adult lower respiratory tract. Medicine (Baltimore) 1983;62:38493.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 195  Bruynseels P, Jorens PG, Demey HE, et al. Herpes simplex virus in the respiratory tract of critical care patients: a prospective study. Lancet 2003;362:153641.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 196  Hubbell C, Dominguez R, Kohl S. Neonatal herpes simplex pneumonitis. Rev Infect Dis 1988;10:4318.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 197  Brown P, Taylor B. Herpes simplex infection associated with pemphigus vulgaris. Case report and literature review. J Am Acad Dermatol 1989;21:11268.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 198  Hale EK, Bystryn JC. Atypical herpes simplex can mimic a flare of disease activity in patients with pemphigus vulgaris. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 1999;13:2213.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 199  Niederecker C, Tappeiner G, Wolff K. Generalized herpes simplex infection complicating bullous pemphigoid. Br J Dermatol 1995;132:4846.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 200  Zaim MT, Bickers DR. Herpes simplex associated with Hailey–Hailey disease. J Am Acad Dermatol 1987;17:7012.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 201  Wahba A, Cohen HA. Herpes simplex virus isolation from pyoderma gangrenosum lesions in a patient with chronic lymphatic leukemia. Dermatologica 1979;158:3738.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 202  Madhavan HN, Priya K, Anand AR, et al. Detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) genome using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in clinical samples: comparison of PCR with standard laboratory methods for the detection of HSV. J Clin Virol 1999;14:14551.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 203  Wald A, Huang ML, Carrell D, et al. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA on mucosal surfaces: comparison with HSV isolation in culture. J Infect Dis 2003;188:134551.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 204  Rose L, Herra CM, Crowley B. Evaluation of real‐time polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of herpes simplex virus in swab specimens. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2008;27:85761.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 205  Brady RC, Bernstein DI. Treatment of herpes simplex virus infections. Antiviral Res 2004;61:7381.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 206  Nikkels AF, Pierard GE. Treatment of mucocutaneous presentations of herpes simplex virus infections. Am J Clin Dermatol 2002;3:47587.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 207  Yeung‐Yue KA, Brentjens MH, Lee PC, et al. The management of herpes simplex virus infections. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2002;15:11522.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 208  Cernik C, Gallina K, Brodell RT. The treatment of herpes simplex infections: an evidence‐based review. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:113744.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 209  Kimberlin DW, Lin CY, Jacobs RF, et al. Safety and efficacy of high‐dose intravenous acyclovir in the management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections. Pediatrics 2001;108:2308.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 210  Amir J. Clinical aspects and antiviral therapy in primary herpetic gingivostomatitis. Paediatr Drugs 2001;3:5937.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 211  Fife KH, Barbarash RA, Rudolph T, et al. Valaciclovir versus acyclovir in the treatment of first‐episode genital herpes infection. Results of an international, multicenter, double‐blind, randomized clinical trial. The Valaciclovir International Herpes Simplex Virus Study Group. Sex Transm Dis 1997;24:4816.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 212  Johns DR, Gress DR. Rapid response to acyclovir in herpes zoster‐associated encephalitis. Am J Med 1987;82:5602.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 213  Slavin HB, Ferguson JJ Jr. Zoster‐like eruptions caused by the virus of herpes simplex. Am J Med 1950;8:45667.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 214  Fletcher PG, Sterling JC. Recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection of the hand complicated by persistent lymphoedema. Australas J Dermatol 2005;46:11013.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 215  Shearer ML, Finch SM. Periodic organic psychosis associated with recurrent herpes simplex. N Engl J Med 1964;271:4947.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 216  Sekizawa T, Nakamura S, Kogure K, et al. Idiopathic third cranial nerve palsy associated with herpes simplex virus infection. BMJ (Clin Res Edn) 1987;295:813.Cross Ref link
      • 217  Maruri CA, Diaz LA. A rare case of Mauriac neuralgic genital herpes. Int J Dermatol 1972;11:1403.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 218  Umehara U, Oka H, Toyoda C, et al. Pearls & Oy‐sters: Trigeminal neuropathy associated with herpes labialis. Neurology 2012;79;e1735.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 219  Howard WR, Taylor JS, Steck WD. Lymphatic complications of manual herpes simplex infection. Cutis 1979;23:5803.Pubmed link
      • 220  Sharma RC, Sharma NL, Mahajan V, et al. Wolf's isotopic response: herpes simplex appearing on scrofuloderma scar. Int J Dermatol 2003;42:6646.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 221  Singla R, Brodell RT. Erythema multiforme due to herpes simplex virus. Recurring target lesions are the clue to diagnosis. Postgrad Med 1999;106:1514.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 222  Darragh TM, Egbert BM, Berger TG, et al. Identification of herpes simplex virus DNA in lesions of erythema multiforme by the polymerase chain reaction. J Am Acad Dermatol 1991;24:236.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 223  Ng PP, Sun YJ, Tan HH, et al. Detection of herpes simplex virus genomic DNA in various subsets of Erythema multiforme by polymerase chain reaction. Dermatology 2003;207:34953.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 224  Wackernagel A, Zochling N, Back B, et al. Presence of herpes simplex virus DNA in erythema multiforme but not polymorphic light eruption. Br J Dermatol 2006;155:10845.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 225  Kampgen E, Burg G, Wank R. Association of herpes simplex virus‐induced erythema multiforme with the human leukocyte antigen DQw3. Arch Dermatol 1988;124:13725.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 226  Malo A, Kampgen E, Wank R. Recurrent herpes simplex virus‐induced erythema multiforme: different HLA‐DQB1 alleles associate with severe mucous membrane versus skin attacks. Scand J Immunol 1998;47:40811.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 227  Burnett JW, Laing JM, Aurelian L. Acute skin eruptions that are positive for herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase in patients with stem cell transplantation: a new manifestation within the erythema multiforme reactive dermatoses. Arch Dermatol 2008;144:9027.Pubmed link
      • 228  Schofield JK, Tatnall FM, Leigh IM. Recurrent erythema multiforme: clinical features and treatment in a large series of patients. Br J Dermatol 1993;128:5425.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 229  Huff JC. Acyclovir for recurrent erythema multiforme caused by herpes simplex. J Am Acad Dermatol 1988;18:1979.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 230  Bakis S, Zagarella S. Intermittent oral cyclosporin for recurrent herpes simplex‐associated erythema multiforme. Australas J Dermatol 2005;46:1820.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 231  Kurkcuoglu N, Alli N. Cimetidine prevents recurrent erythema multiforme major resulting from herpes simplex virus infection. J Am Acad Dermatol 1989;21:81415.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 232  Furuta Y, Fukuda S, Chida E, et al. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 in patients with Bell's palsy. J Med Virol 1998;54:1626.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 233  Murakami S, Mizobuchi M, Nakashiro Y, et al. Bell palsy and herpes simplex virus: identification of viral DNA in endoneurial fluid and muscle. Ann Intern Med 1996;124:2730.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 234  Kawaguchi K, Inamura H, Abe Y, et al. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella‐zoster virus and therapeutic effects of combination therapy with prednisolone and valacyclovir in patients with Bell's palsy. Laryngoscope 2007;117:14756.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 235  Tedder DG, Ashley R, Tyler KL, et al. Herpes simplex virus infection as a cause of benign recurrent lymphocytic meningitis. Ann Intern Med 1994;121:3348.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 236  Spruance SL. Prophylactic chemotherapy with acyclovir for recurrent herpes simplex labialis. J Med Virol 1993;Suppl. 1:2732.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 237  Crumpacker CS. Significance of resistance of herpes simplex virus to acyclovir. J Am Acad Dermatol 1988;18:1905.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 238  Youle MM, Hawkins DA, Collins P, et al. Acyclovir‐resistant herpes in AIDS treated with foscarnet. Lancet 1988;2:3412.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 239  Parker AC, Craig JI, Collins P, et al. Acyclovir‐resistant herpes simplex virus infection due to altered DNA polymerase. Lancet 1987;2:1461.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 240  Rooney JF, Bryson Y, Mannix ML, et al. Prevention of ultraviolet‐light‐induced herpes labialis by sunscreen. Lancet 1991;338:141922.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 241  Beeson WH, Rachel JD. Valacyclovir prophylaxis for herpes simplex virus infection or infection recurrence following laser skin resurfacing. Dermatol Surg 2002;28:3316.Pubmed link
      • 242  Bisaccia E, Scarborough D. Herpes simplex virus prophylaxis with famciclovir in patients undergoing aesthetic facial CO2 laser resurfacing. Cutis 2003;72:3278.Pubmed link
      • 243  Karlsmark T, Goodman JJ, Drouault Y, et al. Randomized clinical study comparing Compeed cold sore patch to acyclovir cream 5% in the treatment of herpes simplex labialis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2008;22:118492.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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      • 245  Raborn GW, Martel AY, Lassonde M, et al. Effective treatment of herpes simplex labialis with penciclovir cream: combined results of two trials. J Am Dent Assoc 2002;133:3039.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 246  Raborn GW, McGaw WT, Grace M, et al. Treatment of herpes labialis with acyclovir. Review of three clinical trials. Am J Med 1988;85:3942.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 247  Seth AK, Misra A, Umrigar D. Topical liposomal gel of idoxuridine for the treatment of herpes simplex: pharmaceutical and clinical implications. Pharm Dev Technol 2004;9:27789.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 248  Amin AR, Robinson MR, Smith DD, et al. Trifluorothymidine 0.5% ointment in the treatment of aciclovir‐resistant mucocutaneous herpes simplex in AIDS. AIDS 1996;10:10513.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 249  Rooney JF, Straus SE, Mannix ML, et al. Oral acyclovir to suppress frequently recurrent herpes labialis. A double‐blind, placebo‐controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1993;118:26872.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 250  Spruance SL, Kriesel JD. Treatment of herpes simplex labialis. Herpes 2002;9:649.Pubmed link
      • 251  Mitchell CD, Bean B, Gentry SR, et al. Acyclovir therapy for mucocutaneous herpes simplex infections in immunocompromised patients. Lancet 1981;1:138992.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 252  Straus SE, Smith HA, Brickman C, et al. Acyclovir for chronic mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infection in immunosuppressed patients. Ann Intern Med 1982;96:2707.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 253  Lazarus HM, Belanger R, Candoni A, et al. Intravenous penciclovir for treatment of herpes simplex infections in immunocompromised patients: results of a multicenter, acyclovir‐controlled trial. The Penciclovir Immunocompromised Study Group. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999;43:11927.Pubmed link
      • 254  Hann IM, Prentice HG, Blacklock HA, et al. Acyclovir prophylaxis against herpes virus infections in severely immunocompromised patients: randomised double blind trial. BMJ 1983;287:3848.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 255  Wade JC, Newton B, Flournoy N, et al. Oral acyclovir for prevention of herpes simplex virus reactivation after marrow transplantation. Ann Intern Med 1984;100:8238.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 256  Ljungman P, Wilczek H, Gahrton G, et al. Long‐term acyclovir prophylaxis in bone marrow transplant recipients and lymphocyte proliferation responses to herpes virus antigens in vitro. Bone Marrow Transpl 1986;1:18592.
      • 257  Javaly K, Wohlfeiler M, Kalayjian R, et al. Treatment of mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infections unresponsive to acyclovir with topical foscarnet cream in AIDS patients: a phase I/II study. J AIDS 1999;21:3016.
      • 258  Bryant P, Sasadeusz J, Carapetis J, et al. Successful treatment of foscarnet‐resistant herpes simplex stomatitis with intravenous cidofovir in a child. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2001;20:10836.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 259  Bernstein DI, Spruance SL, Arora SS, et al. Evaluation of imiquimod 5% cream to modify the natural history of herpes labialis: A pilot study. Clin Infect Dis 2005;41:80814.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

      Primary herpes genitalis

      • 260  Brugha R, Keersmaekers K, Renton A, et al. Genital herpes infection: a review. Int J Epidemiol 1997;26:698709.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 261  Tran T, Druce JD, Catton MC, et al. Changing epidemiology of genital herpes simplex virus infection in Melbourne, Australia, between 1980 and 2003. Sex Transm Infect 2004;80:2779.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 262  Koelle DM, Benedetti J, Langenberg A, et al. Asymptomatic reactivation of herpes simplex virus in women after the first episode of genital herpes. Ann Intern Med 1992;116:4337.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 263  Coyle PV, O'Neill HJ, Wyatt DE, et al. Emergence of herpes simplex type 1 as the main cause of recurrent genital ulcerative disease in women in Northern Ireland. J Clin Virol 2003;27:229.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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      • 265  Nieuwenhuis RF, van Doornum GJ, Mulder PG, et al. Importance of herpes simplex virus type‐1 (HSV‐1) in primary genital herpes. Acta Derm Venereol 2006;86:12934.Pubmed link
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      • 267  Goodell SE, Quinn TC, Mkrtichian E, et al. Herpes simplex virus proctitis in homosexual men. Clinical, sigmoidoscopic, and histopathological features. N Engl J Med 1983;308:86871.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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      • 270  Belshe RB, Leone PA, Bernstein DI, et al. Herpevac Trial for Women. N Engl J Med 2012;366:3443.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 271  Patel R, Barton SE, Brown D, et al. European guideline for the management of genital herpes. Int J STD AIDS 2001;12 Suppl. 3:349.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 272  Mertz GJ, Critchlow CW, Benedetti J, et al. Double‐blind placebo‐controlled trial of oral acyclovir in first‐episode genital herpes simplex virus infection. JAMA 1984;252:114751.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 273  Wanat KA, Gormley RH, Rosenbach M, Kovarik CL. Intralesional cidofovir for treating extensive genital verrucous herpes simplex virus infection. JAMA Dermatol 2013;149:8813.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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      • 277  Mertz GJ. Asymptomatic shedding of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2: implications for prevention of transmission. J Infect Dis 2008;198:1098100.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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      • 281  Spruance SL, Tyring SK, DeGregorio B, et al. A large‐scale, placebo‐controlled, dose‐ranging trial of peroral valaciclovir for episodic treatment of recurrent herpes genitalis. Valaciclovir HSV Study Group. Arch Intern Med 1996;156:172935.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 282  Sacks SL, Aoki FY, Diaz‐Mitoma F, et al. Patient‐initiated, twice‐daily oral famciclovir for early recurrent genital herpes. A randomized, double‐blind multicenter trial. Canadian Famciclovir Study Group. JAMA 1996;276:449.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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      • 286  Johnston C, Saracino M, Kuntz S, et al. Standard‐dose and high‐dose daily antiviral therapy for short episodes of genital HSV‐2 reactivation: three randomised, open‐label, cross‐over trials. Lancet 2012;379:6417.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 287  Huff JC. Acyclovir for recurrent erythema multiforme caused by herpes simplex. J Am Acad Dermatol 1988;18:1979.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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      • 291  Mertz GJ, Loveless MO, Levin MJ, et al. Oral famciclovir for suppression of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus infection in women. A multicenter, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled trial. Collaborative Famciclovir Genital Herpes Research Group. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:3439.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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      • 294  Wald A, Corey L, Timmler B, et al. Helicase‐primase inhibitor pritelivir for HSV‐2 infection. N Engl J Med 2014;370:20110.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 295  Corey L, Wald A. Maternal and neonatal herpes simplex virus infections. N Engl J Med 2009;361:137685.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 296  Sauerbrei A, Wutzler P. Herpes simplex and varicella‐zoster virus infections during pregnancy: current concepts of prevention, diagnosis and therapy. Part 1: herpes simplex virus infections. Med Microbiol Immunol 2007;196:8994.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 297  Brown ZA, Vontver LA, Benedetti J, et al. Effects on infants of a first episode of genital herpes during pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1987;317:124651.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 298  Prober CG, Sullender WM, Yasukawa LL, et al. Low risk of herpes simplex virus infections in neonates exposed to the virus at the time of vaginal delivery to mothers with recurrent genital herpes simplex virus infections. N Engl J Med 1987;316:2404.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 299  Eskild A, Jeansson S, Stray‐Pedersen B, et al. Herpes simplex virus type‐2 infection in pregnancy: no risk of fetal death: results from a nested case‐control study within 35,940 women. BJOG 2002;109:10305.Pubmed link
      • 300  Pardo J, Yogev Y, Ben‐Haroush A, et al. Primary herpes simplex virus type 1 gingivostomatitis during the second and third trimester of pregnancy: foetal and pregnancy outcome. Scand J Infect Dis 2004;36:17981.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 301  Brown ZA, Wald A, Morrow RA, et al. Effect of serologic status and cesarian delivery on transmission rates of herpes simplex virus from mother to infant. JAMA 2003;289:2039.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 302  Gorton RL, Moses SE, Kuckerman M. Global burden of herpes simplex type 2. Lancet Infect Dis 2009;9:3334.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 303  Caviness AC, Demmler GJ, Selwyn BJ. Clinical and laboratory features of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: a case–control study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2008;27:42530.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 304  BASHH and Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Management of genital herpes in pregnancy. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 2014 https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/guidelines/management‐genital‐herpes.pdf (last accessed February 2015).
      • 305  Kimura H, Futamura M, Ito Y, et al. Relapse of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. Arch Dis Child (Fetal Neonatal Edn) 2003;88:F4836.Cross Ref link
      • 306  Gibbs RS, Mead PB. Preventing neonatal herpes – current strategies. N Engl J Med 1992;326:9467.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 307  Hollier LM, Wendel GD. Third trimester antiviral prophylaxis for preventing maternal genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) recurrences and neonatal infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008:CD004946.Pubmed link
      • 308  Kimberlin DW, Baley J, Committee on Infectious Diseases, Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Guidance on management of asymptomatic neonates born to women with active genital herpes lesions. Pediatrics 2013;131:3836.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 309  Kimberlin DW, Lin CY, Jacobs RF, et al. Safety and efficacy of high‐dose intravenous acyclovir in the management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections. Pediatrics 2001;108:2308.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 310  Kimberlin DW, Whitley RJ, Wan W, et al. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group. Oral aciclovir suppression and neurodevelopment after neonatal herpes. N Engl J Med 2011;365:128492.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 311  Anderson BJ. The epidemiology and clinical analysis of several outbreaks of herpes gladiatorum. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35:180914.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 312  White WB, Grant‐Kels JM. Transmission of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in rugby players. JAMA 1984;252:5335.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
      • 313  Gill MJ, Arlette J, Buchan KA. Herpes simplex virus infection of the hand. J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;22:11116.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

      Varicella‐zoster virus infections

        Chickenpox and shingles

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        • 321  Johnson HN. Visceral lesions associated with varicella. Arch Pathol 1940;30:292307.
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        • 328  Committee on Infectious Diseases. Varicella vaccine update. Pediatrics 2000;105:13641.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 329  Nagel MA, Gilden D. Update on varicella zoster virus vasculopathy. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2014;16:407.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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        • 331  Maretic Z, Cooray MP. Comparisons between chickenpox in a tropical and a European country. J Trop Med Hyg 1963;66:31115.Pubmed link
        • 332  Illingworth RS, Zachary RB. Superficial gangrene of the skin in chickenpox. Arch Dis Child 1955;30:1779.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 333  Cortes JR, Arratia JA, Jaime R. A 12‐month‐old infant with Fournier gangrene associated with varicella. Pediatr Emerg Care 2007;23:71920.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 334  al‐Langawi M, al‐Marri MR, al Soub H. Rhabdomyolysis associated with varicella infection. Int J Clin Pract 2001;55:4845.Pubmed link
        • 335  Chen MK, Wang CC, Lu JJ, et al. Varicella arthritis diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction. J Formos Med Assoc 1999;98:51921.Pubmed link
        • 336  Lichtenstein PK, Heubi JE, Daugherty CC, et al. Grade I Reye's syndrome. A frequent cause of vomiting and liver dysfunction after varicella and upper‐respiratory‐tract infection. N Engl J Med 1983;309:1339.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 337  Bay A, Akdeniz N, Calka O, et al. Primary varicella infection associated with Stevens‐Johnson syndrome in a Turkish child. J Dermatol 2005;32:74550.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 338  Christou EM, Wargon O. Stevens–Johnson syndrome after varicella vaccination. Med J Aust 2012;194:2401.Cross Ref link
        • 339  Prais D, Grisuru‐Soen G, Barzilai A, et al. Varicella zoster virus infection associated with erythema multiforme in children. Infection 2001;29:379.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 340  Kishore BN, Ankadavar NS, Kamath GH, Martis J. Varicella zoster with erythema multiforme in a young girl: a rare association. Ind J Dermatol 2014;59:299301.Cross Ref link
        • 341  Rice P, Simmons K, Carr R, et al. Near fatal chickenpox during prednisolone treatment. BMJ 1994;309:106970.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 342  Nikkels AF, Snoeck R, Rentier B, et al. Chronic verrucous varicella zoster virus skin lesions: clinical, histological, molecular and therapeutic aspects. Clin Exp Dermatol 1999;24:34653.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 343  Leung AK, Kao CP, Sauve RS. Scarring resulting from chickenpox. Pediatr Dermatol 2001;18:37880.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 344  De Mozzi P, Graham‐Brown RA, Alexandroff AB. A case of widespread hypertrophic scarring in a child after chickenpox. Clin Exp Dermatol 2011;36:91617.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 345  Gershon AA, Steinberg SP, Gelb L. Clinical reinfection with varicella‐zoster virus. J Infect Dis 1984;149:13742.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 346  Mehta SK, Gilden D, Crucian BE, et al. A case report: PCR‐assisted diagnosis of Varicella in an adult. Open J Med Microbiol 2012;2(3).Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 347  Leung J, Harpaz R, Baughman AL, et al. Evaluation of laboratory methods for diagnosis of varicella. Clin Infect Dis 2010;51:2332.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 348  Puchhammer‐Stockl E, Popow‐Kraupp T, Heinz FX, et al. Detection of varicella‐zoster virus DNA by polymerase chain reaction in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients suffering from neurological complications associated with chicken pox or herpes zoster. J Clin Microbiol 1991;29:151316.Pubmed link
        • 349  Coffin SE, Hodinka RL. Utility of direct immunofluorescence and virus culture for detection of varicella‐zoster virus in skin lesions. J Clin Microbiol 1995;33:27925.Pubmed link
        • 350  Annunziato P, Lungu O, Gershon A, et al. In situ hybridization detection of varicella zoster virus in paraffin‐embedded skin biopsy samples. Clin Diagn Virol 1996;7:6976.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 351  Schmutzhard J, Merete Riedel H, Zweygberg Wirgart B, et al. Detection of herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2 and varicella‐zoster virus in skin lesions. Comparison of real‐time PCR, nested PCR and virus isolation. J Clin Virol 2004;29:1206.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 352  Weibel RE, Neff BJ, Kuter BJ, et al. Live attenuated varicella virus vaccine. Efficacy trial in healthy children. N Engl J Med 1984;310:140915.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 353  Hambleton S, Steinberg SP, Larussa PS, et al. Risk of herpes zoster in adults immunized with varicella vaccine. J Infect Dis 2008;197 Suppl. 2:S1969.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 354  Levin MJ, Gershon AA, Weinberg A, et al. Administration of live varicella vaccine to HIV‐infected children with current or past significant depression of CD4(+) T cells. J Infect Dis 2006;194:24755.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 355  Gershon AA, Steinberg SP. Persistence of immunity to varicella in children with leukemia immunized with live attenuated varicella vaccine. N Engl J Med 1989;320:8927.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 356  Meggitt SJ, Anstey AV, Mohd Mustafa MF, et al. British Association of Dermatologists' guidelines for the safe and effective prescribing of azathioprine 2011. Br J Dermatol 2011;165:71134.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 357  Maves RC, Tripp MS, Dell TG, et al. Disseminated vaccine‐strain varicella as initial presentation of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report and review of the literature. J Clin Virol 2014;59:636.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 358  Geiser CF, Bishop Y, Myers M, et al. Prophylaxis of varicella in children with neoplastic disease: comparative results with zoster immune plasma and gamma globulin. Cancer 1975;35:102730.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 359  Committee on Infectious Diseases. Expanded guidelines for use of varicella‐zoster immune globulin. Pediatrics 1983;72:8869.Pubmed link
        • 360  Breuer J, Fifer H. Chickenpox. Clin Evid (Online) 2011 Apr 11;2011:pii: 0912.
        • 361  Shrim A, Koren G, Yudin MH, Farine D. Management of varicella infection (chickenpox) in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2012;34:28792.Pubmed link
        • 362  Carter PE, Duffy P, Lloyd DJ. Neonatal varicella infection. Lancet 1986;2:145960.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 363  Sills JA, Galloway A, Amegavie L, et al. Acyclovir in prophylaxis and perinatal varicella. Lancet 1987;1:161.
        • 364  Huang YC, Lin TY, Lin YJ, et al. Prophylaxis of intravenous immunoglobulin and acyclovir in perinatal varicella. Eur J Pediatr 2001;160:914.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 365  Centers for Disease Control. Varicella‐zoster immune globulin for the prevention of chickenpox. Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee, Centers for Disease Control. Ann Intern Med 1984;100:85965.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 366  Perren TJ, Powles RL, Easton D, et al. Prevention of herpes zoster in patients by long‐term oral acyclovir after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Am J Med 1988;85:99101.Pubmed link
        • 367  Asano‐Mori Y, Kanda Y, Oshima K, et al. Long‐term ultra‐low‐dose acyclovir against varicella‐zoster virus reactivation after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Am J Hematol 2008;83:4726.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 368  Balfour HH Jr, Edelman CK, Anderson RS, et al. Controlled trial of acyclovir for chickenpox evaluating time of initiation and duration of therapy and viral resistance. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2001;20:91926.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 369  Al‐Nakib W, Al‐Kandari S, El‐Khalik DM, et al. A randomised controlled study of intravenous acyclovir (Zovirax) against placebo in adults with chickenpox. J Infect 1983;6:4956.
        • 370  Feder HM Jr. Treatment of adult chickenpox with oral acyclovir. Arch Intern Med 1990;150:20615.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 371  Pergam SA, Limaye AP, AST Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. Varicella zoster virus in solid organ transplantation. Am J Transplant 2013;13 Suppl. 4:13846.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

        Zoster

        • 372  Sampathkumar P, Drage LA, Martin DP. Herpes zoster (shingles) and postherpetic neuralgia. Mayo Clin Proc 2009 Mar;84(3):27480.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 373  Yawn BP, Saddier P, Wollan PC, et al. A population‐based study of the incidence and complication rates of herpes zoster before zoster vaccine introduction. Mayo Clin Proc 2007;82:13419.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 374  Gershon AA, Gershon MD, Breuer J, et al. Advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of herpes zoster. J Clin Virol 2010;48 Suppl. 1:S27.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 375  Lai‐Kwon J, Weiland TJ, Chong AH, Jelinek GA. Which dermatological conditions present to an emergency department in Australia? Emerg Med Int. 2014;2014:463026.Pubmed link
        • 376  Yawn BP, Gilden D. The global epidemiology of herpes zoster. Neurology 2013;81:92830.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 377  Juel‐Jensen BE. The natural history of shingles. Events associated with reactivation of varicella‐zoster virus. J R Coll Gen Pract 1970;20:3237.Pubmed link
        • 378  Esiri MM, Tomlinson AH. Herpes zoster. Demonstration of virus in trigeminal nerve and ganglion by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. J Neurol Sci 1972;15:3548.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 379  Ebert MH. Histologic changes in sensory nerves of the skin in herpes zoster. Arch Derm Syphilol 1949;60:6418.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 380  Muller SA, Winkelmann RK. Cutaneous nerve changes in zoster. J Invest Dermatol 1969;52:717.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 381  Weinberg JM. Herpes zoster: epidemiology, natural history, and common complications. J Am Acad Dermatol 2007;57(6 Suppl.):S1305.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 382  Rifkind D. The activation of varicella‐zoster virus infections by immunosuppressive therapy. J Lab Clin Med 1966;68:46374.Pubmed link
        • 383  Bilimoria S, Hutton WN, Keczkes K. Herpes zoster and electrocardiographic changes. Br J Clin Pract 1982;36:404, 407.
        • 384  Enders G, Miller E, Cradock‐Watson J, et al. Consequences of varicella and herpes zoster in pregnancy: prospective study of 1739 cases. Lancet 1994;343:154851.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 385  Lewkonia IK, Jackson AA. Infantile herpes zoster after intrauterine exposure to varicella. BMJ 1973;3:149.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 386  Akiyama N. Herpes zoster infection complicated by motor paralysis. J Dermatol 2000;27:2527.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 387  Marsh RJ, Dulley B, Kelly V. External ocular motor palsies in ophthalmic zoster: a review. Br J Ophthalmol 1977;61:67782.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 388  Fugelso PD, Reed WB, Newman SB, et al. Herpes zoster of the anogenital area affecting urination and defaecation. Br J Dermatol 1973;89:2858.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 389  Kost RG, Straus SE. Postherpetic neuralgia – pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention. N Engl J Med 1996;335:3242.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 390  Volpi A, Gatti A, Pica F, et al. Clinical and psychosocial correlates of post‐herpetic neuralgia. J Med Virol 2008;80:164652.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 391  Nagel MA. Varicella zoster virus vasculopathy: clinical features and pathogenesis. J Neurovirol 2014;20:15763.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 392  Wang CC, Lin CL, Chang YJ, et al. Herpes zoster infection associated with acute coronary syndrome: a population‐based retrospective cohort study. Br J Dermatol 2014;170:11229.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 393  Vonderheid EC, van Voorst Vader PC. Herpes zoster‐varicella in cutaneous T‐cell lymphomas. Arch Dermatol 1980;116:40812.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 394  Guinee VF, Guido JJ, Pfalzgraf KA, et al. The incidence of herpes zoster in patients with Hodgkin's disease. An analysis of prognostic factors. Cancer 1985;56:6428.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 395  Schuchter LM, Wingard JR, Piantadosi S, et al. Herpes zoster infection after autologous bone marrow transplantation. Blood 1989;74:14247.Pubmed link
        • 396  Koc Y, Miller KB, Schenkein DP, et al. Varicella zoster virus infections following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: frequency, risk factors, and clinical outcome. Biol Blood Marrow Transpl 2000;6:449.Cross Ref link
        • 397  Di Costanzo L, Ayala F, Megna M, et al. The risk of herpes zoster in the anti‐TNF‐α era: a case report and review of the literature. J Dermatol Case Rep 2013;307:14.
        • 398  Wollina U, Gemmeke A. Herpes zoster‐associated erythema multiforme. J Dermatol Case Rep 2009;3:1113.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 399  Watanabe D, Kuhara T, Ishida N, et al. Sarcoid tissue reaction on herpes zoster scars in a myelodysplastic syndrome patient: Wolf's isotopic response. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2009;23:4757.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 400  Ruocco E, Baroni A, Cutri FT, et al. Granuloma annulare in a site of healed herpes zoster: Wolf's isotopic response. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2003;17:6868.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 401  Huang CW, Tu ME, Wu YH, et al. Isotopic response of fungal granuloma following facial herpes zoster infections – report of three cases. Int J Dermatol 2007;46:11415.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 402  Ladoyanni E, Rajpar S, Rodriguo T et al. An eruption after herpes zoster infection. Clin Exp Dermatol 2010;35:3312.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 403  Fung V, Rajapakse Y, Longhi P. Periorbital necrotising fasciitis following cutaneous herpes zoster. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2012;65:1069.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 404  Sellitti TP, Huang AJ, Schiffman J, et al. Association of herpes zoster ophthalmicus with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and acute retinal necrosis. Am J Ophthalmol 1993;116:297301.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 405  Yawn BP, Wollan PC, Kurland MJ, et al. Herpes zoster recurrences more frequent than previously reported. Mayo Clin Proc 2011;86:8893.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 406  Nagel MA, Choe A, Cohrs RJ, et al. Persistence of varicella zoster virus DNA in saliva after herpes zoster. J Infect Dis 2011;204:8204.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 407  Dworkin RH, Johnson RW, Breuer J, et al. Recommendations for the management of herpes zoster. Clin Infect Dis 2007;44 Suppl. 1:S126.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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        • 409  Oxman MN, Levin MJ, Johnson GR, et al. A vaccine to prevent herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in older adults. N Engl J Med 2005;352:227184.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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        • 413  Gopal MG, Shannoma, Kumar BCS, et al. A comparative study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acyclovir and famciclovir in the management of herpes zoster. J Clin Diagn Res 2013;7:29047.Pubmed link
        • 414  Whitley RJ, Gnann JW Jr, Weiss HL, et al. Unique clinical trial design: combination acyclovir plus prednisone therapy of localized zoster in the normal host. Antiviral Res 1996;29:678.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 415  Wood MJ, Johnson RW, McKendrick MW, et al. A randomized trial of acyclovir for 7 days or 21 days with and without prednisolone for treatment of acute herpes zoster. N Engl J Med 1994;330:896900.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 416  Chen N, Li Q, Yang J, et al. Antiviral treatment for preventing postherpetic neuralgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;2:CD006866.Pubmed link
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        • 419  Ljungman P, Lonnqvist B, Ringden O, et al. A randomized trial of oral versus intravenous acyclovir for treatment of herpes zoster in bone marrow transplant recipients. Bone Marrow Transplant 1989;4:61315.Pubmed link
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        • 421  Sabatowski R, Galvez R, Cherry DA, et al. Pregabalin reduces pain and improves sleep and mood disturbances in patients with post‐herpetic neuralgia: results of a randomised, placebo‐controlled clinical trial. Pain 2004;109:2635.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 422  Petersen KL, Fields HL, Brennum J, et al. Capsaicin evoked pain and allodynia in post‐herpetic neuralgia. Pain 2000;88:12533.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 423  Litman SJ, Vitkun SA, Poppers PJ. Use of EMLA cream in the treatment of post‐herpetic neuralgia. J Clin Anesth 1996;8:547.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 424  Rowbotham MC, Davies PS, Verkempinck C, et al. Lidocaine patch: double‐blind controlled study of a new treatment method for post‐herpetic neuralgia. Pain 1996;65:3944.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

        Cytomegalovirus

        • 425  Lesher JL Jr. Cytomegalovirus infections and the skin. J Am Acad Dermatol 1988;18:13338.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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        • 428  Rai N, Thakur N. Congenital CMV with LAD type 1 and NK cell deficiency. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2013;35:4689.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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        • 440  Syrjänen S, Leimola‐Virtanen R, Schmidt‐Westhausen A, Reichart PA. Oral ulcers in AIDS patients frequently associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infections. J Oral Pathol Med 1999;28:2049.Pubmed link
        • 441  Colsky AS, Jegasothy SM, Leonardi C, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of a case of cutaneous cytomegalovirus infection with a dramatic clinical presentation. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;38:34951.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 442  Cachafeiro T, Escobar G, Bakos L, Bakos R. Chronic cutaneous cytomegalovirus infection in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome. Br J Dermatol 2014;170:2235.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 443  Radić M, Martinović Kaliterna D, Radić J. Infectious disease as aetiological factor in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis. Neth J Med 2010;68:34853.Pubmed link
        • 444  Pastano R, Dell'Agnola C, Bason C, et al. Antibodies against human cytomegalovirus late protein UL94 in the pathogenesis of scleroderma‐like skin lesions in chronic graft‐versus‐host disease. Int Immunol 2012;24:58391.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 445  Meyer MF, Hellmich B, Kotterba S, et al. Cytomegalovirus infection in systemic necrotizing vasculitis: causative agent or opportunistic infection. Rheumatol Int 2000;20:358.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 446  Khalaf D, Toema B, Dabbour N, Jehani F. Toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with severe cytomegalovirus infection in a patient on regular hemodialysis. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2011;3:e2011004.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 447  Berant M, Naveh Y, Weissman I. Papular acrodermatitis with cytomegalovirus hepatitis. Arch Dis Child 1983;58:10245.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 448  Taïeb A, Plantin P, Du Pasquier P, et al. Gianotti–Crosti syndrome: a study of 26 cases. Br J Dermatol 1986;115:4959.
        • 449  Carrascosa JM, Bielsa I, Ribera M, et al. Papular‐purpuric gloves‐and‐socks syndrome related to cytomegalovirus infection. Dermatology 1995;191:26970.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 450  Vitiello M, Echeverria B, Elgart G, Kerdel F. Erythema multiforme major associated with CMV infection in an immunocompetent patient. J Cutan Med Surg 2011;15:11517.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 451  Cieza‐Díaz DE, Campos‐Domínguez M, Santos‐Sebastián MdM. Erythema multiforme in a newborn associated with acute acquired cytomegalovirus infection. Pediatr Dermatol 2013;30:e1613.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 452  Engelmann I, Petzold DR, Kosinska A, et al. Rapid quantitative PCR assays for the simultaneous detection of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein–Barr virus, and human herpesvirus 6 DNA in blood and other clinical specimens. J Med Virol 2008;80:46777.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 453  Boppana SB, Ross SA, Shimamura M, et al. Saliva polymerase‐chain‐reaction assay for cytomegalovirus screening in newborms. N Engl J Med 2011;364:211118.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 454  Biron KK. Antiviral drugs for cytomegalovirus diseases. Antiviral Res 2006;71:15463.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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        Epstein–Barr virus infections

          Introduction

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          • 457  Andiman WA. The Epstein–Barr virus and EB virus infections in childhood. J Pediatr 1979;95:17182.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 458  Young LS, Rickinson AB. Epstein–Barr virus: 40 years on. Nature Rev Cancer 2004;4:75768.Cross Ref link

          Infectious mononucleosis

          • 459  Luzuriaga K, Sullivan JL. Infectious mononucleosis. N Engl J Med 2010;362:19932000.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 460  Cowdrey SC, Reynolds JS. Acute urticaria in infectious mononucleosis. Ann Allergy 1969;27:1827.Pubmed link
          • 461  Dakdouki GK, Obeid KH, Kanj SS. Azithromycin‐induced rash in infectious mononucleosis. Scand J Infect Dis 2002;34:93941.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 462  Wu LY, Mesko JW, Petersen BH. Cold urticaria associated with infectious mononucleosis. Ann Allergy 1983;50:2714.Pubmed link
          • 463  Barth JH. Infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever) complicated by cold agglutinins, cold urticaria and leg ulceration. Acta Derm Venereol 1981;61:4512.Pubmed link
          • 464  Revuz J, Lassale C, Weschler J. Syndrome de Gianotti–Crosti à virus Epstein–Barr. Ann Dermatol Venereol 1983;110:7678.Pubmed link
          • 465  Terasaki K, Koura S, Tachikura T, et al. Gianotti–Crosti syndrome associated with endogenous reactivation of Epstein–Barr virus. Dermatology 2003;207:6871.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 466  Lipschütz B. Über eine eigenartige Geschwürsform des weiblichen Genitales (ulcus vulvae acutum). Arch Dermatol Syph (Berlin) 1913;114:363.Cross Ref link
          • 467  Lampert A, Assier‐Bonnet H, Chevallier B, et al. Lipschutz's genital ulceration: a manifestation of Epstein–Barr virus primary infection. Br J Dermatol 1996;135:6635.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 468  Arico M, Imashuku S, Clementi R, et al. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis due to germline mutations in SH2D1A, the X‐linked lymphoproliferative disease gene. Blood 2001;97:11313.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 469  Menard F, Besson C, Rince P, et al. Hodgkin lymphoma‐associated hemophagocytic syndrome: a disorder strongly correlated with Epstein–Barr virus. Clin Infect Dis 2008;47:5314.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 470  Hayakawa I, Shirasaki F, Ikeda H, et al. Reactive hemophagocytic syndrome in a patient with polyarteritis nodosa associated with Epstein–Barr virus reactivation. Rheumatol Int 2006;26:5736.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 471  Gurkan A, Yakupoglu U, Yavuz A, et al. Hemophagocytic syndrome in kidney transplant recipients: report of four cases from a single center. Acta Haematol 2006;116:10813.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 472  Sonke GS, Ludwig I, van Oosten H, et al. Poor outcomes of chronic active Epstein–Barr virus infection and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in non‐Japanese adult patients. Clin Infect Dis 2008;47:1058.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 473  Berry PA, Bernal W, Pagliuca A, et al. Multiple organ failure and severe bone marrow dysfunction in two 18 year‐old Caucasian patients: Epstein–Barr virus and the haemophagocytic syndrome. Anaesthesia 2008;63:124954.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 474  Elazary AS, Wolf DG, Amir G, et al. Severe Epstein–Barr virus‐associated hemophagocytic syndrome in six adult patients. J Clin Virol 2007;40:1569.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 475  Kawachi Y, Itoh M, Fujisawa Y, et al. Epidermal cell necrosis with direct epidermal infiltration of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)‐encoded small nuclear RNA‐positive T lymphocytes in a patient with EBV‐associated haemophagocytic syndrome. Br J Dermatol 2007;157:10536.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 476  Lewkowicz E, Darnige L, Auffret N, et al. Atypical skin lesions revealing an EBV‐associated hemophagocytic syndrome after a large B cell lymphoma in complete remission. Leuk Lymphoma 2007;48:4214.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 477  Brinkmeier T, Reuter T, Metze D, et al. Disseminated hyperkeratotic and granulomatous nodules in a child with fatal Epstein–Barr‐virus‐associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Pediatr Dermatol 2006;23:358.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 478  Balamuth NJ, Nichols KE, Paessler M, et al. Use of rituximab in conjunction with immunosuppressive chemotherapy as a novel therapy for Epstein Barr virus‐associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2007;29:56973.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 479  Vince A, Lepej SZ, Kurelac I, et al. Virological and immunological characteristics of fatal Epstein–Barr virus mononucleosis in a 17‐year‐old Caucasian male presenting with meningoencephalitis and hemophagocytic syndrome. J Neurovirol 2007;13:38996.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 480  Lee HY, Huang YC, Lin TY, et al. Primary Epstein–Barr virus infection associated with Kikuchi's disease and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a case report and review of the literature. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2010;43:2537.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 481  Nakai H, Sugata K, Usui C, et al. A case of erythema multiforme associated with primary Epstein–Barr virus infection. Pediatr Dermatol 2011;28:235.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 482  Bodansky HJ. Erythema nodosum and infectious mononucleosis. BMJ 1979;2:1263.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 483  Hammar H. Erythema annulare centrifugum coincident with Epstein–Barr virus infection in an infant. Acta Paediatr Scand 1974;63:78892.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 484  Almagro M, Del Pozo J, Martinez W, et al. Pityriasis lichenoides‐like exanthem and primary infection by Epstein–Barr virus. Int J Dermatol 2000;39:1569.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 485  Baldari U, Raccagni AA, Celli B, et al. Chronic bullous disease of childhood following Epstein–Barr virus seroconversion: a case report. Clin Exp Dermatol 1996;21:1236.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 486  Spencer SA, Fenske NA, Espinoza CG, et al. Granuloma annulare‐like eruption due to chronic Epstein–Barr virus infection. Arch Dermatol 1988;124:2505.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 487  Picard D, Janela B, Descamps V, et al. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS): a multiorgan antiviral T cell response. Sci Transl Med 2010;2:46ra62.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 488  Jenson HB. Virologic diagnosis, viral monitoring, and treatment of Epstein–Barr virus infectious mononucleosis. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2004;6:2007.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 489  De Paschale M, Clerici P. Serological problems of Epstein–Barr virus infection: Problems and solutions. World J Virol 2012;1:3143.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 490  Hassan R, White LR, Stefanoff CG, et al. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) detection and typing by PCR: a contribution to diagnostic screening of EBV‐positive Burkitt's lymphoma. Diagn Pathol 2006;1:17.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

          Oral hairy leukoplakia

          • 491  Cho HH, Kim SH, Seo SH, et al. Oral hairy leukoplakia which occurred as a presenting sign of acute myeloid leukemia in a child. Ann Dermatol 2010;22:736.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 492  Piperi E, Omlie J, Koutlas IG, Pambuccian S. Oral hairy leukoplakia in HIV‐negative patients: report of 10 cases. Int J Surg Pathol 2010;18:17783.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 493  Rushing EC, Hoschar AP, McDonnell JK, et al. Iatrogenic oral hairy leukoplakia: report of two cases. J Cutan Pathol 2011;38:2759.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 494  Eisenberg E, Krutchkoff D, Yamase H. Incidental oral hairy leukoplakia in immunocompetent persons. A report of two cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1992;74:3323.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

          Chronic active EBV infection

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          • 496  Murakami K, Ohsawa M, Hu SX, et al. Large‐vessel arteritis associated with chronic active Epstein–Barr virus infection. Arthritis Rheum 1998;41:36973.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 497  Verneuil L, Gouarin S, Comoz F, et al. Epstein–Barr virus involvement in the pathogenesis of hydroa vacciniforme: an assessment of seven adult patients with long‐term follow‐up. Br J Dermatol 2010;163:17482.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 498  Klion AD, Mejia R, Cowen EW, et al. Chronic active Epstein–Barr virus infection: a novel cause of lymphocytic variant hypereosinophilic syndrome. Blood 2013;121:23646.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 499  Chiu TM, Lin YM, Wang SC, Tsai YG. Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites as the primary clinical manifestation of an Epstein–Barr virus infection. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2014 Mar 21:pii:S16841182(14)00011‐5.
          • 500  Draborg AH, Duus K, Houen G. Epstein–Barr virus in systemic autoimmune diseases. Clin Dev Immunol 2013;2013:535738.Pubmed link
          • 501  Park S, Ko YH. Epstein–Barr virus‐associated T/natural killer‐cell lymphoproliferative disorders. J Dermatol 2014;41:2939.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 502  Tokura Y, Ishihara S, Tagawa S, et al. Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites as the primary clinical manifestation of a juvenile type of Epstein–Barr virus‐associated natural killer cell leukemia/lymphoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001;45:56978.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 503  Xu Z, Lian S. Epstein–Barr virus‐associated hydroa vacciniforme‐like cutaneous lymphoma in seven Chinese children. Pediatr Dermatol 2010;27:4639.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 504  Iwatsuki K, Satoh M, Yamamoto T, et al. Pathogenic link between hydroa vacciniforme and Epstein–Barr virus‐associated hematologic disorders. Arch Dermatol 2006;142:58795.Pubmed link
          • 505  Abe Y, Muta K, Ohshima K, et al. Subcutaneous panniculitis by Epstein–Barr virus‐infected natural killer (NK) cell proliferation terminating in aggressive subcutaneous NK cell lymphoma. Am J Hematol 2000;64:2215.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 506  Kuo TT, Chen MJ, Kuo MC. Cutaneous intravascular NK‐cell lymphoma: report of a rare variant associated with Epstein–Barr virus. Am J Surg Pathol 2006;30:1197201.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

          Epstein–Barr virus associated lymphomas and carcinomas

          • 507  Linch DC. Burkitt lymphoma in adults. Br J Haematol 2012;156:693703.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 508  Maruani A, Wierzbicka E, Machet MC, et al. Reversal of multifocal cutaneous lymphoproliferative disease associated with Epstein–Barr virus after withdrawal of methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2007;57(5 Suppl.):S6971.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 509  McAleer MA, D'Arcy CA, Mulligan NJ, et al. Primary cutaneous lymphoma associated with Epstein–Barr virus and azathioprine therapy. Clin Exp Dermatol 2010;35:6746.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 510  Shimoyama Y, Asano N, Kojima M, et al. Age‐related EBV‐associated B‐cell lymphoproliferative disorders: diagnostic approach to a newly recognized clinicopathological entity. Pathol Int 2009;59:83543.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

          Human herpesvirus 6 and 7 virus infections

          • 511  Dockrell DH. Human herpesvirus 6: molecular biology and clinical features. J Med Microbiol 2003;52:518.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 512  Salahuddin SZ, Ablashi DV, Markham PD, et al. Isolation of a new virus, HBLV, in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. Science 1986;234:596601.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 513  Flamand L, Komaroff AL, Arbuckle JH, Medveczky PG, Ablashi DV. Review, part 1: Human herpesvirus‐6‐basic biology, diagnostic testing, and antiviral efficacy. J Med Virol 2010;82:15608.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 514  Dewhurst S, McIntyre K, Schnabel K, Hall CB. Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV‐6) variant B accounts for the majority of symptomatic primary HHV‐6 infections in a population of U.S. infants. J Clin Microbiol 1993;31:41618.Pubmed link
          • 515  Tomonari A, Takahashi S, Ooi J, et al. Human herpesvirus 6 variant A infection with fever, skin rash, and liver dysfunction in a patient after unrelated cord blood transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 2005;36:110910.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 516  Wolz MM, Sciallis GF, Pittelkow MR. Human herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8 from a dermatologic perspective. Mayo Clin Proc 2012;87:100414.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 517  Broccolo F, Drago F, Cassina G, et al. Selective reactivation of human herpesvirus 6 in patients with autoimmune connective tissue diseases. J Med Virol 2013;85:192534.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 518  Hoffmann A, Kirn E, Kuerten A, et al. Active human herpesvirus‐6 (HHV‐6) infection associated with Kikuchi–Fujimoto disease and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In Vivo 1991;5:2659.Pubmed link
          • 519  De Bolle L, Naesens L, De Clercq E. Update on human herpesvirus 6 biology, clinical features, and therapy. Clin Microbiol Rev 2005;18:21745.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 520  Yamanishi K, Okuno T, Shiraki K, et al. Identification of human herpesvirus‐6 as a causal agent for exanthem subitum. Lancet 1988;1:10657.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 521  Okuno T, Takahashi K, Balachandra K, et al. Seroepidemiology of human herpesvirus 6 infection in normal children and adults. J Clin Microbiol 1989;27:6513.Pubmed link
          • 522  Di Luca D, Mirandola P, Ravaioli T, et al. Human herpesviruses 6 and 7 in salivary glands and shedding in saliva of healthy and human immunodeficiency virus positive individuals. J Med Virol 1995;45:4628.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 523  Arbuckle JH, Medveczky MM, Luka J, et al. The latent human herpesvirus‐6A genome specifically integrates in telomeres of human chromosomes in vivo and in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010;107:55638.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 524  Tanaka‐Taya K, Sashihara J, Kurahashi H, et al. Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV‐6) is transmitted from parent to child in an integrated form and characterization of cases with chromosomally integrated HHV‐6 DNA. J Med Virol 2004;73:46573.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

          Roseola infantum

          • 525  Okada K, Ueda K, Kusuhara K, et al. Exanthema subitum and human herpesvirus 6 infection: clinical observations in fifty‐seven cases. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1993;12:2048.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 526  Asano Y, Yoshikawa T, Suga S, et al. Clinical features of infants with primary human herpesvirus 6 infection (exanthem subitum, roseola infantum). Pediatrics 1994;93:1048.Pubmed link
          • 527  Hall CB, Long CE, Schnabel KC, et al. Human herpesvirus‐6 infection in children. A prospective study of complications and reactivation. N Engl J Med 1994;331:4328.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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          • 529  Yoshida M, Fukui K, Orita T, et al. Exanthem subitum (roseola infantum) with vesicular lesions. Br J Dermatol 1995;132:61416.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 530  Niederman JC, Liu CR, Kaplan MH, et al. Clinical and serological features of human herpesvirus‐6 infection in three adults. Lancet 1988;2:81719.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 531  Akashi K, Eizuru Y, Sumiyoshi Y, et al. Brief report: severe infectious mononucleosis‐like syndrome and primary human herpesvirus 6 infection in an adult. N Engl J Med 1993;329:16871.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 532  Asano Y, Yoshikawa T, Kajita Y, et al. Fatal encephalitis/encephalopathy in primary human herpesvirus‐6 infection. Arch Dis Child 1992;67:14845.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 533  Hashimoto H, Maruyama H, Fujimoto K, et al. Hematologic findings associated with thrombocytopenia during the acute phase of exanthem subitum confirmed by primary human herpesvirus‐6 infection. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2002;24:21114.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 534  Boccara O, Lesage F, Regnault V, et al. Nonbacterial purpura fulminans and severe autoimmune acquired protein S deficiency associated with human herpesvirus‐6 active replication. Br J Dermatol 2009;161:1813.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 535  Sugita K, Kurumada H, Eguchi M, et al. Human herpesvirus 6 infection associated with hemophagocytic syndrome. Acta Haematol 1995;93:1089.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 536  Ruzicka T, Kalka K, Diercks K, Schuppe HC. Papular‐purpuric “gloves and socks” syndrome associated with human herpesvirus 6 infection. Arch Dermatol 1998;134:2424.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 537  Yasumoto S, Tsujita J, Imayama S, Hori Y. Case report: Gianotti–Crosti syndrome associated with human herpesvirus‐6 infection. J Dermatol 1996;23:499501.Pubmed link
          • 538  Peppercorn AF, Miller MB, Fitzgerald D, Weber DJ, Groben PA, Cairns BA. High‐level human herpesvirus‐6 viremia associated with onset of Stevens–Johnson syndrome: report of two cases. J Burn Care Res 2010;31:3658.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 539  Rebora A, Drago F, Broccolo F. Pityriasis rosea and herpesviruses: facts and controversies. Clin Dermatol 2010;28:497501.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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          Herpesvirus 7 infections

          • 541  Frenkel N, Schirmer EC, Wyatt LS, et al. Isolation of a new herpesvirus from human CD4+ T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990;87:74852.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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          • 543  Torigoe S, Kumamoto T, Koide W, et al. Clinical manifestations associated with human herpesvirus 7 infection. Arch Dis Child 1995;72:51819.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 544  Bruns R, Muller CE, Wiersbitzky SK, et al. Clinical presentations of infection by the human herpesvirus‐7 (HHV‐7). Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2000;17:24752.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 545  Clark DA, Freeland ML, Mackie LK, et al. Prevalence of antibody to human herpesvirus 7 by age. J Infect Dis 1993;168:2512.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 546  De Vries HJ, van Marle J, Teunissen MB, et al. Lichen planus is associated with human herpesvirus type 7 replication and infiltration of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Br J Dermatol 2006;154:3614.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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          Reactivation of herpesvirus 6 and 7

          • 548  Clark DA. Human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7: emerging pathogens in transplant patients. Int J Hematol 2002;76 (Suppl. 2):24652.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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          • 552  Hubiche T, Milpied B, Cazeau C, Taieb A, Leaute‐Labreze C. Association of immunologically confirmed delayed drug reaction and human herpesvirus 6 viremia in a pediatric case of drug‐induced hypersensitivity syndrome. Dermatology 2011;222:1401.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 553  Ichiche M, Kiesch N, De Bels D. DRESS syndrome associated with HHV‐6 reactivation. Eur J Intern Med 2003;14:498500.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

          Human herpesvirus 8 infection

          • 554  Laurent C, Meggetto F, Brousset P. Human herpesvirus 8 infections in patients with immunodeficiencies. Hum Pathol 2008;39:98393.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 555  Wyplosz B, Carlotti A, Escaut L, et al. Initial human herpesvirus‐8 rash and multicentric Castleman disease. Clin Infect Dis 2008;47:6848.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 556  Cousins E, Nicholas J. Molecular biology of human herpesvirus 8: novel functions and virus‐host interactions implicated in viral pathogenesis and replication. Recent Results Canc Res 2014;193:22768.Cross Ref link
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          Herpes B virus infection

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          Eczema herpeticum

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          Polyomavirus infections

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          Human papillomavirus infections

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